Origin of English word COMMERCE

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The word COMMERCE is addressed in the entry: MARKET

English Word


Edenic Word


Hebrew Word







[M-KH-R → M-R-K]


to sell or to market


Latin merx (merchandise) and mercari (to trade) are traced to the "Italic root"  merk (aspects of commerce).

Metathesis is needed to see the roots of COMMERCE.  From Eden to Babel the MERCHANDISE underwent an M132 metathesis, where   מ-כ-ר Mem-Khaf-Resh became MRK or C.  Latin merces (pay, reward, price) matches up with MiK[H]eeYR (pay, "price" in IISamuel24:24).  Whether the guttural is a Het or Khaf, it costs the same. מכר MeKHeR is a price or sale;  מכר MaKHahR is to sell or to MARKET (Genesis 37:36) and   מוכר   MOAKHaiR is a seller or MERCHANT. Not only do we have Khaf and Het sandwiched by Mem and Resh in these MERCENARY terms, but the Hey, a third guttural, is represented too. מהר MoaHahR is a dowry or bride price (Genesis 34:12).   Other commercial

    כ-ר Khaf-Resh words at HIRE.


The merk root gives us COMMERCE, COMMERCIAL, MARKET, MART, MERCANTILE, MERCENARY, MERCER, MERCHANT, MERCURY and, dictionaries mistakenly add MERCY (see MERCY, there is no mercy in business).  Because of the metatheis, the very MARKETING terms most expected to be borrowed from Hebrew, Phoenician or Arabic are harder to dismiss as mere historical borrowings.  Japanese makaru means profitable; mokeru is to earn. Methathesis did not affect the ancestors of Japan, at least for this word.

Only French com merc e and Italian com merc io bear the Edenic Mem-Khaf-Resh. A good buy or inexpensive purchase is bon marche in French.  Marche is market in French.

Other MARKET words with the Edenic Mem-Khaf-Resh include: Italian mercato, Danish marked, Dutch markt, German Markt and Spanish/Portuguese mercado.    The Shin-Tahf-Phey of SHiTOOF (partership --- the sense of “association” is from Jewish Aramaic and Syriac) is metathesized in the German word for business: Ge shaft.

Is it thought that to SELL is from Old English sellan (to betray), from the IE “root” sel 3  ((to take, grasp).  It is also taken for granted that marketing at reduced price, a SALE,  was a word that developed later. If you aren’t buying all this,  there’s the Jewish Aramaic זול ZOAL (cheap), linked to Isaiah 46:6 by EDK.  A Post-Biblical-Hebrew form means “became cheap,”

and הזיל HeyZeeYL in Modern Hebrew means “reduced the price.”  Only a fricative shift differentiates Zayin from S.

Bible Verses

Genesis 37:36 והמדנים מכרו אתו אל־מצרים לפוטיפר סריס פרעה שׂר הטבחים׃

“And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of the guard.”



Related Words


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