[RVGH → QVR]
Given the fact that the Europeans borrowed
"Arabic" numerals from Semites whose letters went from right to left,
some confusion was inevitable. The Hebrew for one fourth ( ¼ ) or one QUARTER is רבע Re[V]aGH (Exodus29:40). Dutch kwart
( ¼ ), Polish cwierc
( ¼ ), and Latin quartus
(pronounced "kvortus") require a full inversion of Hebrew's ר-ב-ע Resh-Bhet-Ayin, R -V-GH. This is like RVQ
after a guttural shift. The reconstructed Indo-European root for "four" is the
strange concoction kwetwer.
Four (4) in Hebrew is א רבע ARBaGH or ARB[A]h (Genesis23:16).
QUARTER ( ¼ ) in Arabic (rouba)
and Swahili (robo) do not have the guttural K or Q here, leaving Hebrew
as the most logical source for all forms of four, like QUA(T)R(AIN) or
(S)QUARE. English FOUR, from Anglo-Saxon feower, does appear to be a
reversed liquid-bilabial that spread after the establishment of Arabic trade
roots. For the Resh-Bhet root's meaning see
RIFE. More at FOUR.
Other examples of a
123 → 321 full reversals include STACK from GaDeSH (shifting to
KTS and reversing to STK -- stack of sheaves - Judges15:5),
SWEET from Di[V]aSH (shifting to TWS and reversing to SWT date honey,
historys first sweetener -- Genesis 43:11) and SLOG, SLEIGH (see
SLEIGH) or SLEDGE from GaLaS(H) ( only S shifting, but a full reversal
-- to ski see GLISSADE). A fine Resh-Bhet-Ayin QUARTER is
German Revier (quarter, district).
Some of the
FORTY cognates of QUARTER at Indo-European root kwetwer include CADRE, CAHIER,
CARILLON, CARNET, FARTHING, FIRKIN, FOUR, FOURTEEN, QUADRANT, QUADRATE,
QUADRILLE, QUADROON, QUARANTINE (a 40-day period), QUART (1/4 gallon), QUARTO,
QUARREL, QUARRY, and SQUAD.
(Bombay) number four in car, pronounced like care.
a quarter that have the bilabial-liquid sound of FOUR. like German vierte
and Swahili robo certainly resemble Edenic ReBH[A].more than the
invented Indo-European root kwetwer. Linquists should have suspected that
QUART and SQUARE are cognates. But they could not make these slightly different
four terms square. Resh-Bhet-Vav-(guttural)
Ayin, Ra(V)OO[A]h (square Exodus 27:1) , elsewhere just RaV[A]h, reverses to
guttural-V-R. An inhistoric S is added to many initial-guttural words, see
SCALLOP. The makes our reversed Resh-Bhet-Ayin (square) sound like S-K-V-R.
Heres our SQUARE. The AHD has to
the Frankenstein (Germanic laboratory reconstruction) kwetwer (four)
for an Indo-European root. At least they agree that SQUARE did not have an S in its oldest
(four) is said to give rise to CATERCORNER, which became the Americanism: KITTY-CORNER (diagonally across). Polish kat is a corner
or angle, so this folk etymology is suspect, and one should consider קצה
QaTSeH, extremity, edge see COAST.