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By Isaac Mozeson

Which Do You Prefer from Your C.P.A.: A SUM or a SUMMIT ?


new entry:

SUM     $eKHeM    Samekh-Khaf-Mem

SEK-em______  סכם_____[(S-KH-M]

ROOTS:  The wisdom of the Indo-Europeanists has SUM (a total) coming from a theoretical root uper (over).  For what they are looking for, see עבר  [A]BHahR (across, beyond, over..) at  OVER.

 Having no racially-correct root for an S-M 'total' word,  and with Latin having identical words for sum and summit, they try to force a logical link between a 'summit' or top of a mountain and the total of a numerical addition.

The unlazy, unprejudiced way to seek an ancient word source is to gather global words, including those not spoken by whites, and to see which patterns of sound and sense appear. In the 'Branches' below, there are both S-M and fricative-guttural or S-K (and reverse) words for SUM. An ideal, world-class etymon would begin with an S, have a guttural in the middle that could shift or drop out, and end with an M (which would drop for the S-K words).

סכם $eKHeM is to SUM up, count. Aramaic סכם $iKHahM means 'he counted.'

סך $ahKH (amount, sum) is post-Biblical, but related to Syriac סכא  $aKHAh, end by EDK.

By Middle Hebrew the noun סכם $eKHeM (a SUM) carried the counting and ending meanings to specifically mean a sum total.



BRANCHES:   The list below is only limited to words meaning SUM:

Bulgarian: сума;  Danish: som;  Dutch, Afrikaans: som;  Estonian, Icelandic, Finnish and Latvian (summa), French : somme; German Summe; Irish: suim;   Italian: somma Lithuanuan (suma);  Portuguese: soma;  Portuguese: soma; Russian: сумма;  Spanish: suma and Swedish:  umma are all likely from Latin summa.

Latin is not prehistoric, so all these are from סכם $eKHeM (sum), closest to Albanian: shumë.

Not following the Indo-European and Latin way are S-K fricative-gutturals (with the final-Mem/M dropped)  such as:  Chinese: 總數, 总数 (zǒngshù),  Czech: součet (souchet);  Hungarian: összeg;  and Japanese: 総額そうがく(sōgaku).

Reversing to guttural-fricative are the surprising pair of Amharic and German/Yiddish. (Italian would

have left words in the Horn of Africa.  In Amharic (Semitic, Ethiopia) a sum is ganzab.  In German and Yiddish

ganz means all, entire, total  <  ß N. S-G   S-F    סך  $ahKH ,  סכם $eKHeM, total.

Perhaps dropping the initial-Samekh/$ of סכם $eKHeM (sum) is Hawaiian: huina (S-N).


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