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By Isaac Mozeson


RECITING... THE .. HAGADAH

Apr11

RECITING   THE  HAGADAH

(RE)CIT(ATION)      (Ha)GaD(aH)    Hey-Gimel-Dalet-Hey
ha-GUD-ah                       __הגדה     ___             [G-D à KT] 
ROOTS:  There is no Indo-European (IE) “root” for words like CITATION or RECITE.  Thirteen words connected to RECITAL are linked by Webster’s to Latin citare, to call or name. CITE and CITATION are linked to Latin citare, to arouse, summon.
 Think K-T, or guttural-dental.

 הגידHeeGeeYD is to tell or announce (Genesis 3:11).  The citation of Exodus 13:8 (“and you shall tell your son”) makes it to the entry headline as the more well known source for the   הגדהHaGaDaH -- the RECITATION or retelling of the exodus saga on Passover.  The ג-ד Gimel-Dalet root is a guttural-dental,
as is the Latin K-T one.

BRANCHES:  The    אגדהAGaDaH is narrative, non-scriptural lore.   מגיד MaGeeYD is an orator, later an itinerant preacher.  The IE “root” kei –3 (to set in motion) is the alleged source of CITE and INCITE (see “INCITE).

 Few people read centuries ago, unless they were announcing a proclamation to a gathering. Therefore, this
K-T root appears in words for reading in Eastern Europe: Czech cisti, Polish czytac, Serbo-Croat citati and Russian chitat.

There is a dental-guttural root, deik,  meaning to show, or to pronounce solemnly, and which is said to give rise to words like TEACH and TOKEN.
Reverse that root to guttural-dental, and we have a fine Gimel-Dalet of  הגדה  HaGaDaH and RECITATION.  
Modern Hebrew דגמה  DooGMaH (example) and דגם  DeGeM (to exemplify, standardize) are from Greek deigma (sample, specimen). This DG (reverse of our GD) is a fine echo of the  הגדה HaGaDaH-style teaching by example (as well as with מגיד MaGeeYD, RECITATION.

 But E.D.Klein  obscures this by citing Latin dicere (to say, tell), and the Amer. Heritage Dict. (AHD) also has their theoretical Indo-European DK root.  See SYNDICATE.

Other cognates from IE deik to show, pronounce solemnly) or from Latin dicere (to say, tell) given by the AHD include:  ADDICT, AVENGE, BENEDICTION, BETOKEN, CONDITION, CONTRADICTDICTATE, DICTION, DICTIM, DICTATE, DICTATION,  DICTION, DICTUM, DISK, DITTO, DITTY, EDICT, FATIDIC, INDEX, INDICATE, INDICT, INDITE, INTERDICT, JUDGE (maybe from history's first judge: YeHuDaH) , JUDICIAL, JURIDICAL, JURISDICTION (see 'JURISDICTION' from a metathesis of יושר   YoSHeR, righteousness), MALEDICT, PREDICATE, PREDICT, PREJUDICE, REVENGE, TACHISM, VENDETTA, VERDICT, VERIDICAL and VINDICATE.  

DIGIT, from Latin digitus (finger) was put here, but a digit is more likely 'one,' than an indicator. So the Edenic word/root to reverse and shift is Aramaic חד K[H]aD (one) and Hebrew  אחד EK[K]aD (one). See 'DIGIT.'

Getting back to the Greek, and to DG and GD, the AHD includes PARADIGM and POLICY from deiknunai, to show.  
Greek diké (justice, right) is a clipped form of  צדק TSaDahQ (just, right…justify, vindicate), but the AHD puts DICAST, EURYDICE, SYNDIC (see 'SYNDICATION') and THEODICY at their deik entry too.
A 'root' meaning both 'showing' and 'pronoucing solemnly' is on the level of kindergarten show and tell. This bad marriage allows the AHD to include 'cognates'  like  BETOKEN, TEACH, TETCHY, TOE and TOKEN.

Better belonging here were words from Latin dicare (to proclaim): ABDICATE, DEDICATE, PREACH (see PREACH) and PREDICATE. The D-C may again come from a reversed Gimel-Dalet, though the specificity of DEDICATED also deserves consideration of the דיק Dalet-Koof roots seen at TACTICIAN.

Office RECITATION, diktieren (DICTATION) was borrowed by German. To RECITE or tell in Japanese is kataru.
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