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By Isaac Mozeson


UPDATED CHINESE LIST for The Year of the Horse -Part I

Feb07

 
 CHINESE 中文 (Mandarin) – EDENIC  
[George Shen  and Kinneret Pau assisted with the Chinese.  Fernando Aedo  (Bantu, Dravidian, Egyptian, Mayan, Mon-Khmer) and Regina Werling helped provide global cognates. (Key to dialect abbreviations on request).   Comments to project leader Isaac: mozeson@yahoo.com]   

Introduction: The skeptic will dismiss sound and sense similarities between 'unrelated languages' as coincidence. Twenty of these are allowed to exist, they say, just by mathematical chance. Therefore, much more than 20 links from Chinese to Edenic (Proto-Semitic, as documented in the Hebrew Bible) are presented below. Consider the following 'coincidence,' and figure the mathematical odds: Chinese yan 眼= eye, and yuan 源= water source. In Ancient Hebrew, these are both Ayin-Yod-Noon,  עין   [A]YiN.
 
The logical, mathematical weight of the Genesis 11 thesis (merely documented by us in Edenics) rests in meaning, NOT mere sound. There are 30,000 different meanings that a word can have. Only once a common theme is seen can one look for a possible correspondence in sound.  Chinese Westernized spellings must be considered as merely vague approximations of actual pronunciation. Alphabetizing by transliteration is problematic; the list is arranged by gloss or meaning.
                                                    
Most Chinese words do not have two consonants, greatly reducing the size of this comparison. Letters have been dropped and transformed into tones.  Even though a Resh/R is most likely to be dropped, this list does not include, for example,  shi X588 verse from   שירהSHeeRaH, poetry. Even when considering the available two-consonant words, a remarkably high percentage of correspondence is seen.

Chinese pictographs and definitions are from the Xinhua dictionary (X + page number).
Page numbers will vary slightly depending on the edition (a few years apart).
Letter Shift Codes:  Human words have only 7 anatomic sounds, as all music is from 7 notes.  All vowels are interchangeable, no letter shifts need be indicated.
S-B = bilabial shift [interchangeable lip letters: B, F, V, W]
S-F = fricative shift,[interchangeable whistling letters: Soft C, S, TS, X]
S-G = guttural shift [interchangeable throat letters: Hard C, G, K, Q]
S-D = dental shift [interchangeable tooth letters: D, T, TS]
S-L = liquid shift [interchangeable tongue letters: L, R]
S-N = nasal shift  [interchangeable nose letter: M, N]
M = metathesis (root letters switch places. For example, an M213 metathesis is French blanc (white) coming from the second, first and third letters of Edenic LaBHaN (white).
ß = reverse the (root letters of) the Edenic word   
N  Nasalize the word with an added N or M 

See 'XYZ' is the Edenics dictionary entry to find all Biblical citations, sub-roots, engineered synonyms and antonyms, and more Semitic and world cognates.

Key to romanized Hebrew Aleph-Bet:
Vowels in lower case. Root letters in Upper Case with [brackets] around unpronounced letters or non-historic ones in the derivative language.  5 Hebrew letters have end-forms.

Aleph א = A or any Upper Case VOWEL, Bet ב  = B, Bhet = BH or (V), Gimel   ג= G,
Dalet = ד  D, Hey   ה= H, Vav  ו = V, OO or OA, Zayin ז  = Z,
Het   ח= [K]H or K[H], Tetט   = DT, Yod   י = Y, Kahf כ,ך  K, Khaf = KH, Lamed   ל= L, Mem מ,ם  = M, Noon נ  = N, Samekh    ס = $, Ayin   ע = bracketed UPPER CASE [VOWEL] or GH, Pey פ,ף   = P,  Phey = PH or F,
Zaddi   צ,ץ = TS (always read ST in European), Koof    ק = Q,
Raish  ר = R or WR, Shin   ש = SH, Sin = S, Tahf    ת = T, TH, or (S)

ORDER OF ENTRY:  Meaning      Chinese  pronunciation  traditional pictograph word  (simplified form when available)    page in Xinhua dictionary   guide to shifts, etc.    Edenic ultimate source in Hebrew, then transliteration    meaning of the Edenic   entry in e-word CD dictionary and edenics.net searchable wordbase.
 If no entry exists, a Biblical citation is added.
G.C. = sample of closer global cognates. 

Across    lan  欄(栏) X377   ß S-N מול  MOOL, opposite, facing --  see   'MOLE.' 
        G.C. : Latin moles is a dam, mole, or wall-like structure;
        Lamba is to wade across (Bantu:Mambwe).
 
Age, duration of years   ling 齢 X409   ß  N.  גיל  GeeYL, age, number of years
       (Daniel 1:10).  G.C.:  jala, time  (Mayan: Chol/PNT);    kal,  age, long period
        of time, eternity  (Mon-Khmer:  Khmeric Branch)
 
Agree, consent    ken 肯 X358  כן  KaiN, yes, agree, affirm; kan   X348 can --         see  ACUMEN.    See Yes below.
        G.C: Korean  chin =  pro ; Can-o, yes (Mayan: Ixil). ß A_ngo, yes (Dravidian:Kui); Kon, agree (Bantu: Nkim).

Alive    chi  持 X79 live on; S-G חי  [K]HaiY 氣(气), life [this is also the word      for breath: pronounced hei in Cantonese and qi in Mandarin]
        – see HEYDAY.
       G.C.: Ices, life (Mayan: Kanjobal); iq. Breath (Mayan: Chicomuceltec)
 
Announce   sheng 聲(声) X586  S-N  שמע  SHeeMaGH,  聲 (声)聞 'sound hear'        announce.  See Reputation below.  --  see SOUND
       G.C.: Shum = noise (Russian)  sanna_ na, to resound (Dravidian: H)
 
Angry  1. [the emotion]  chen  嗔 S-N  חמה   K[H]aiMaH, wrath  -- see AMITY        G.C.:  ß mich', angry (Mayan: Ch'ol);-kemena, to get  furious (Bantu: Lozi)
       2. fu 怫 X181 (looking angry, glowering) ßאף   AhF. flaring nostrils in anger      Genesis 27:45.  See OPEN
 
Answer , respond  ying 應 (应)  X776  S-G ענה   [A]NaH or  ß GHaNaH, to   answer Ezekiel 14:4   G.C.: Japanese han'no, response.
 
 
Anticipation   nia  謔 X478  added to the end of a sentence, just like נא  NAh, in        phrases like קום נא   QOOM NAh, get up, I pray  (or now) in  Genesis         27:19
        G.C.: \Norwegian na (now); Japanese ima (now);  Danish, Dutch and
        Hittite nu (now).
 
Arrow  Shi  矢 X592 ß חץ [K]HaiTS , arrow – see HASTATE
         G.C.: Latin sagitta (arrow); Haetat is arrow for the Coeur d'Alene
          Indians of British Columbia.
 
Awake  wừ    X687 (עור)   ער [E]R, awake  -- see ORIENTATION
           The Resh/R renders W or WR, as see, at WORM and WRONG.
           G.C.:  Greek egeirein (to awaken) is from the guttural Ayin/GH.
 
Baby    ying 嬰 X774  S-G  ינק  YoNaiQ, suckling infant –  see YOUNG
       G.C.: Un.n.uka, to suck (Dravidian: Ma.), ionga, suck (Bantu: Kiseri.unn)
        See Infant below

Bake    1. bei 焙 X27  ß S-B אפה  APHaH (bake – Genesis 40:5), 2.  pao 炮   X495,  a BAKING, roasting and cooking term ß אפה  APHaH (bake)
        -- see OVEN
        G.C.: 'oop', to toast (Mayan: Lacandon); Akkadian epü  is to bake;
        Polish piec (to bake);  Thai ohp means to bake.

Balanced, honest, middle, upright, straight  -  ting 挺[straight] X649 
       ß   אמת   EMeT, אמתי AMeeTeeY, true;  אמצע EMTSaGH, middle.
       See True below, and  see ETYMOLOGY.
       G.C. tinna, straight, direct (Dravidian: Te.)
 
Basket – see Bin

Bath    mu 沐 X466   מיא  MaYA, water (Aram.),  מים MaYiM, waters
       - see MIAMI  G.C.: 'uya'-min,wave of water (Mayan: Lacandon); Egyptian      mw, water; oma, spring of Water (Bantu: Sonjo)
 
Beard      mang 駹 X440   מנא   MeeNAh, hair (Syriac)  -- see MANE
       G.C.:  man.o_ma.ni, Man without beard or moustache (Dravidian: Ku.)
 
Bed  chuang 床   X90, stand (for a musical instrument),  K[H]ahN , KaNaH, base, post (as laver)
 
Between areas or parties bian  邊(边) X38  בין BaYN, between Genesis 49:10
       -- see BONE UP

Beautiful   1. wan  婉 X667   ß   2. yan  X742  נאוה  Na'AVaH or Na'WaH,    comely (Songs 1:5)   --See BONNY 
          G.C.: Japanese bijin  is pretty; ban, pretty (Mayan:Aguacatec);
          bwina, beautiful (Bantu: Manda).

Beautiful, handsome   漂 piao X506  ß  יפה  YaPHeH , beautiful 
          -- see BEAUTY    G.C.: In Korean yeppun is pretty.
 
Beautiful (woman) 媛   yuan X 797, x799   ß    1) נוי  NOAY, beauty… from נאה   
    Na'Eh, comely ; 2)  נאוה   Na'aVaH, comely  -- see BONNY'
    G.C.:  Japanese bijin  is pretty; Polish  nowy is new.
 
Belly   fu X188  ,  also: woman  קבה Qai[V]aH is a stomach, womb
       – see CAVITY
       G.C.: Proto-Polynesian koopuu, belly; Igbo (Nigeria)  afo,  abdomen,          stomach;           Japanese fugin is a woman.
 
Bin     dὑn   X150,  a woven bamboo grain bin      טנא   DTeNEh,  a large produce
        asket  for farmers – see TON 
       G.C.: In Ancient  Egyptian  dn' is a metalic vessel, and  dnit is a Egyptian
 
Bird, 'small birds mentioned in ancient  Chinese texts'  yan X746 鷃(鴳)
          יונה     YOANaH, pigeon (as in Temple sacrifices, the name JONAH and the
       dove of  Noah's ark).  – see PIPE
       C.G.: Mon-Khmer from Fernando Aedo:  ɟang, pigeon (Sedang:
       Bahnaric Branch);  ɟnũh,  mall bird  (Jahai: Aslian Branch );
       The second element in the following words mean 'bird' :
       Latin pipionis, Old French pijon, Italian piccione and English PIGEON
 
Blow,  shan  扇(搧)  X571ß נשם  NeSHeM is soul, breath or inhalation
          -- see ANIMUS.   
       G.C.: .  Afrikaans 'breath'is asem. 'Lung' is somwa  in Uto-Aztecan;
        sm in  Ancient Egyptian. In Mon-Khmer (Cambodia region) soan
        means soul, breath of life. (Sre [Koho]: Bahnaric Branch).  [FA]
        Asún, n. wind (Mayan: Jacaltec/PNT)  [FA]
 
Boat, ship 1.  sampam or san-pan,  X571; 2.  船舶 chuánbó means a ship;
        the Xinhua dictionary limits this to chuán  X89 (but fricative-bilabial-nasal is still available,
        since a U often replaces a bilabial).  N, S-N    ספנה $PHeeNaH, boat;
       S-F   צף    TSahF,   to float --    ee 'SHIP'    
        G.C. Indo-European skipam (ship); German Schiff is a ship.                   
  
Boil, pour boiling water on   1. chong  沖(冲) X82  and  2. cuān X99, and
         3. guan 涫 X225  1. S-N   2. S-N   S-G    חם   K[H]ahM, heat– see AMITY
       See Warm entry below.
       G.C.: Ghamma, heat (Dravidian: Pali); 'Humid' in Thai is cheun; hom is boil (Maidu Indians of California ). Maq'an, warm, hot (Mayan: Sacapultec/PNT).
 
Bone,    zhong  中  X849 (backbone, middle finger, noontime ). These Chinese definitions  show us that the bone is the middle and strength of the thing, and   they help us get past the mistranslation of   עצם היום הזה  , [E]TSeM HaYoaM    HaZeH 'that selfsame day' (KJV JPS)  עצם [E]TSeM means 'bone,' and the         translators could not understand 'the bone of the day.' This is when Noah         entered the ark (Genesis 7:13). The same phrase is used and mistranslated        when           the Israelites leave Egypt (Exodus 12:41). Noah defied the skeptics,     and the slaves defied their imperial masters in the 'bone of the day' –that is,    at high   noon, with maximum visibility, in the middle or backbone of the day.                עצם[O]aTSeM means might.  The bone of the thing is its ESSENCE.
       See OSTEOMA.  Greek osteon is a bone.  The  אמצע EMTS[A] (middle) or       backbone of a ship is the MAST. The Chinese reversed. Fernando Aedo adds
       from Mon-Khmer:  kasìang, bone (Halang: Bahnaric Branch);  katiing, bone
       (Alak: Bahnaric Branch); sɨang¹, bone (Mương [Hoa Binh]: Vietic Branch).
 
 
Border, edge    xiang  鑲 (镶)  X 704  ß S-G S-F   N  קץ QaiTS, extremity – see COAST
         G.C. Japanese sakai (border, boundary); German Kuste (shore).
 
Bottle  ping     X508  S-G   N פך   PahKH, flask, vial   -- see BEAKER
        G.C.: Greek bikos is a wine jar.
 
Brain       nao  腦(脑) X474 S-N  מוח  MoaWa[K]H, brains, marrow
        --  ee MARROW 
       G.C.:  Mwongo, marrow (Bantu: Venda); ongo, brain     (Bantu: Sukuma) ;         amm, brain (Egyptian)
 
Brightness, light, glory    guang  光 X 226   M213   S-G    נגהNoaGaH means to        glow, shine, be bright, noun of brightness and splendor.     -- see IGNITION |          G.C.: c'in, sun, day, celebrating of light (Maya: Ch'ol), ngiãngiã, bright,       brilliant (Bantu: Bobangi). See below.
 
Bright, of the sun, of male sexuality   yang  陽(阳)  X748  M213   נגהNoaGaH means  hining and bright, and Venus the sexual planet and force.
        --  see IGNITION   
 G.C.: Reverse for G-N 'fire' words, including Hindi agni from Sanskrit agnih,  Latin ignis, and  Guni  (Malay: Javanese).   Igink is the Eskimo hearth.
 
 
Brother    ge 哥 X201  older brother ß S-G  אח AKH See EACH.
       G.C.: ucú, older brother ; uqtaq, brother and ucau, younger brother (Mayan:        Chicomuceltec); akaka, older brother (Bantu: Ngindo); Mongolian akh  is a          brother. אח  AK[H], brother, becomes kak (brother) in Kurdish. Ocs  is a      (younger) brother in Hungarian.   In Zuni, an Amerind isolate of New Mexico,      kaka is a mother's brother.
 
Bubble     pao 泡 X495  S-B  בעבוע    B[A]BOO[A], bubble – the Vowel-Bilabial is        reduplicated  --– see BUBBLE     
       G.C.: -fufula ~, to boil over, to froth, to bubble up           (Bantu: Lozi );  Japan.   awa,        bubble

Build   bian  (编)  X38 (complete a material, fabricate) בנה  BoNeH, build.    
       -- see BONE 
       G.C.:  baanu, make, do (Mayan: Kekchi);  bana_na, to make (Dravidian: H.)        ABiNYaN (building) is made with ABHaNiM  (stones) or LiBHaiNiM       (bricks) or BEAMS.
 
Burn,  1. shao  焼(烧)X576  2.  zhuo X866, burn, scorch   ß  אש AiSH
         -- see ASIA
       G.C.:. Su is fire in Basque; In Japan, another 'land of the rising sun,' asa is        morning. The oldest root for EAST is based on Sanskrit ushas, dawn. The T in      EAST simply means towards the fiery dawn (in the east).
 
 
 
Bury     bian  窆  X38  1. to conceal underground and 2. a storage BIN to         keep produce. The Edenic ilabial-nasal sub-root is strongly          established by three  פ-ן Pey-Noon words of similar meaning, with three fricatives leading them.  1. ספן   $aFaN (covered, secured,          hidden         - Deuteronomy 33:21),  2.  צפון TSaPHOON (hidden, closeted away –        Exodus 2:2), and 3.שפן   SHaPHaN is to hide as buried        treasure (Deuteronomy 33:19). This word also means the shy, hidden         hyrax or rock badger of this name (Leviticus 11:5). Chinese bian          X37 also means a hidden animal, the bat which only appears at dusk.      A fourth covering, bian  弁X39, means a cap worn by men.
       The e-word entry with all this is STEPHANE, which covers the     turban. FA's cognates incl. cappan, cover (Dravidian: P.) and afn, to          cover (Egyptian).
 
Buttocks , (bottom)  臀  tun X660   ß  S-N   מטה  MaDTaH, down, below
        – see MAT
       G.C.: not.ti, buttocks (Dravidian: Ka.); an.d.u, buttocks or the bottom of a          vessel        (Dravidian: Ka.); mataà-ula, buttocks (Bantu: Denya)

Cake   gao   X200 ß עוגה [O]oGaH  small cake – see CAKE
       G.C.:  The Malay kuih is another rare cookie without the harsh Ayin that   provides the double-guttural sound.
 
Canopy, awning  peng 棚 X498   ß כנף  KaNahPH, wingspread, protective wing
       -- see    CANOPY.    
       G.C.: Also reverse pannakam, leaf-cover of a palanquin, awning,  boat      cover (Dravidian: Ma.) and bangou, wing (Bantu: Grassfields         Ortuno        1995), but not Khambh, wing, feather (Dravidian: P.) or  kamapura, wing    (Bambara -- Mali). If the G in peng 棚 proves to be unhistoric, this         'covering' word   belongs with the bilabial-nasals at the Bury entry above.
 
Case, storage box   xiang  箱  X704  1.  S-G S-F שק   SahQ, bag, container      2.  ß S-G
       S-F   N.  Kee$ooY, covering – see 'SACK,' ENCASE
         G.C.:  Dutch zak, box; German Schmuckkassette, jewlery box
 
Center, midpointzhōng X849 ß   S-N  אמצע  EMTS[A]h or M213   S-N   EMTS'GHah, middle   -- see Middle below and see MEZZANINE
 
Certainly (indicating the certainty of a guess)  dei    X121  דע  DAh ! know!
        G.C. Russian da, yes.
 
Change, transform   shan 嬗 X574   שנה  SHaNaH, to change . To shift  is  zhuan       轉 (转) X861,2   S-F  שנה SHaNaH .   Edenic has the strange, inhuman trait         of sometimes having a word mean the opposite of a previous definition.  Just        as שנה SHaNaH means to repeat the same thing (NOT to change),  shan       鱔 X573,4  means 'copy.'  Similarly, Chinese san 三 X565 means   repeatedly, again and again.  Again and yet again infers thrice, not just twice.        This is why   san means number three.  – see CHANGE   Sahm is 'to     repeat' in Thai.
 
Child  (A)  nan  男 X471,2 and 囡 nan kid X472   נין    NeeYN, descendant, great-       grandchild -- see 'El NINO' 
       G.C.:  Malay niana is a son, and Spanish nino/nina is a  male/female child .         Unin is a son or daughter (Mayan: Tojolabal).  Nanua is a child           (Dravidian: Mth.)   Nunu is offspring (Bantu: Mabia).
 
Child (B)  er 兒(儿)   X158   עולל   [O]WLeL, child, 'infant' in Lamentations           2:11.  -see GIRL   see Child (A) above and Infant below
        G.C.: baby is haurra in Basque.
 
Chimney  cỏng    X96   קנה  QaNeH, windpipe, shaft
 
Choke    qiang  嗆 (呛) X528; gḝng X207  S-G  חנק  K[H]eNeQ, to strangle. -- see HANG
       G.C.: Greek anchien and Latin ango mean to         choke;  Joc'an is to hang
       (Mayan: Tzotzil) ; two more chokers are  -niga (Bantu: Nyamwezi) and
        khama (Bantu: Ndebele).
 
Colorful, gorgeous, brightly-colored  yan 艶(艳)  X746   NOAY, ornament, beauty. This post-Biblical word is from  נאה N Ah'eH  (in Aramaic-Syriac)
       and נוה NaVaH (Exodus 15:2), which  also mean beauty and adornment.
       -- see BONNY
 
Clamping or biting down 1. qian 鉗 X526 ,  2. ken  X357 is to gnaw or nibble
       1. טחן   DTaK(H)aN (to mill, grind). 2.  כנה   KeeNaH, the louse or biting bug
    -- see GNAW              
G.C.:  FA has 30 forms of טחן  DTaK(H)aN, but they all keep the dental. Even if it moves as it does in Sanskrit kan.d, to pound. More than favoring   the biting gnat, the Chinese is again tuned into Edenic sub-roots.  The theoretical Indo-European root of GNAW (to bite down) , GNAT(a biting insect) and GNASH (to grind the teeth) does resemble the Chinese:  ghen (to gnaw).

Class, category, family, branch    men  們(们) X446  מין  MeeYN, species, kind,          sect  -- see MINISTER  G.C.:  In-am is a class, group, kind, species, race,        tribe or herd  (Dravidian: Ta.). Similar reversal of M-N in another Dravidian       language of Southern India.  Namna is a kind in Swahili.  A category stands   alone. Like Greek monos (alone), and is a smaller part of the larger whole.       Thus Russian men'she is less, from  מן  MeeN, from. MINI and  NAME are    also good entries when investigating why men  們 means what it does.
 
 
Clear, evident, conspicuous  zhang X821,2   < N. זך, זכך  ZahKH
         and ZaKHahKH,   clear, pure… bright, transparent. 
 G.C.:  S^c-  is clean, white   (Mayan: Ch'ol).    Another nasalized (extra N)
 זך   ZahKH is -senguluka, to  become or be clear (Bantu: Mambwe). A reversed form is Japanese kaise,  clear weather.
 
Clothes  fu   X162   < ß S-B S-G  חבא  [K]HaBAy, to conceal  -- see COVER
       G.C.:  Hbs is garment, clothes, clothing, cloth and covering (Egyptian) . Kapra    is cloth in Hindi.  Hawaiian reverses their guttural-bilabial 'curtain' word to        paku.
 
Cloud yun 雲(云 )  X801   ענן  [A]NahN, cloud. Genesis 4:19.  – see YEN
       G.C.:  Japanese Kumo (cloud) and French nuage (cloud) reverse the ע-ן  
Ayin-Noon KH-N (M) or GN) with the guttural ע Ayin/GN. The soft,    vowelized   ע Ayin/[A] may be behind NUANCE (from a cloud word).
 
 Club, cudgel, scepter    ting 梃 X649  ß N.  חטר  K[H]oDTeR, branch, stick, rod     (of the kingly tribe of Judah)  -- see 'ROD'
       G.C.:  There are scores of guttural-dental-(and sometimes) liquid 'club'     words.        Only a few are nasalized and reversed like the Chinese. They include:         t.inkara, stick (Sanskrit) and  tonga, heavy stick, cudgel (Bantu: Sangu).

Coin,   qian  X525  is money or coin    קנה  QoNeH, to purchase   
       -- see COIN 
       G.C.:  To buy in Japanese is konyo (suru). Japanese words for gold are kin and   ogen.  Taino gold is caona.
 
Cold, cool   1.  lĕng, cold  X387  2.  liáng 涼 X399, cold   3. líng  泠 X409,
        cool <  ß N.  S-G S-L קר QahR --   ee  'CRYOGENESIS'    
       G.C.:   Ing'aala is cold (Bantu: Bena);  uriuku is cold (Bantu: Nyaturuwil).
         Rumanian 'cold' reverses to rece.
 
 Collapse, see Down below
 
Concerning   gan 干  X193  ß  נוגע NOAGay[A]h, from the Biblical word for       touching or reaching, as in gan  趕(赶)X195 to try to catch. – see NICK
 
Construct, build  zhu  ()  X860   עשה  [A]SayH  ee USE
 
Correct   kan  勘 X348 תקן  TaQeN, to correct --  see 'TECHNOLOGY'
 
Couple – see Two below
 
Cover – see Bury and Canopy above

Covered wagon    zi  輜 (辎) X870  צב  TSahBH, covered wagon (Numbers 7:3)
       -- see    TOP.  An end-Bhet is most likely to go silent or be dropped.
 
Crack, crevice, fissure, slit    feng 縫 X179  <  1. N.  בקיע BiQeeY[A]h,
       crack or fissure,  2. ß  N. S-B   גב  GaiBH, trench   -- see GAP
       3. M312 S-B S-G  נקב NeQeBH, perforation hole; נקבה  NiQaiBHaH,
       female  -- see CAVITY,  see Hole below.
       G.C.:  Dravidian has pakku, fracture, break, crack, (Ta.) and pokkai, little hole,    crack (Ta.).  Old Norse gapa  is to yawn, gape.
 
Crown, top of the head   dǐng  (頂) 顶 X135  ß   N.  קדקוד QahDQOAD -- see HEAD
 
Curry favor with chăn X67   יחן  YooK[H]aN, to find favor  (Proverbs 21:10);
      chăn X67 (different pictographs) also means 'smiling' and asking someone for forgiveness and Taoist repentance, short for the Sanskrit chanma.   K[H]aiN is grace, with extensions meaning to show mercy or to ask for mercy.
      G.C.  German gnade is grace, mercy, favor.
 
 Deer    lu 鹿  X422  ß  איל  AhYiL is a stag, hart or gazelle. -- see ELK
        The  deer-like ELAND is an official cognate.
 
Deer-like animal   zhu   X857  צבי  TS(V)eeY – see BEAST

Defend    gan  干 X193   הגן  HaGeN, to defend -- see JANUARY
       and Guard and Shield below
       G.C. :  a_nga, to intercept, prevention, defence (Dravidian: Kui)
 
Descendant  si X611  צאצא , TSETSAh, offspring (lit., those who 'go out' from you)   Offspring   zi   X870  sons and daughters   צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring   – see  EXIT   and  Descendant above
          G.C.:  The Indo-European reconstructed root for 'son' is seue
           (to give birth).  Uzazi is birth in Swahili.

Differentiate , clarify right from wrong  1. bian 辯X40 בינה ,  2. bian 編 X 37, the editing, deciding between texts and 3.  bian 辨  X40 becoming different
       1. בין  BaiYN,  understanding,    between  See Side by side below and 2.  בינה         BeeYNaH,  discrimination  -- see BONE UP 
       G.C.: bayina , between (Bantu: Emakhua)
 
Dike (wall) dàng  X116 , wall for water control   N  דייק    DaYYeQ andדיק
       DaYaiQ,   iege-wall, bulwark or rampart. See DIKE.
        G.C.  Old French digue is a dike; a German dike is a Deich.
 
Direction -- see POINT
 
Discuss, talk over  1. shang   X573 and  2. shuō( discuss, explain, say, speak)
        X609   1.  N. S-G  S-F, 2. S-G     שיח  SeeYaK[H], converse.     --  see 'SAY.'
       G.C.:  Old Norse segja looks like an M132 of שיחה   SeeYK[H]aH. The Dutch      (zeggen) and German (sagen) forms of SAY also render the ח Het as a G.

Disease     gan  疳 X 195, also guan 瘝  X223   ß   נגע  NaG[A]h, infect, plague 
         -- see INNOCENT 
       G.C.: qam, sick, gravely ill (Mayan: Ch'ol)


Dispute, contend in court  song 訟(讼)  X613 S-F  S-G  N. עשק   [A]SHahQ, contend  Genesis 26:20
 
Do, use    1. shi  使 X 592  2. zuo  (作) X882, do, work, produce  ß                              S-F  עשה   [A]SeH,   to do  -- see USE  עשה   [A]seH also means to create, so     see Make below
        G.C.: Italian usare is to use or make use of..  From עשה   GHaSeH, to do:
        khoza, to do, to do well, accomplish, be able to do (Bantu: Chewa)

Down  tun 吞 X659 is to swallow down, and tan X627 is to collapse, fall down    or to lose face.  This last meaning of the typically reversed and shifted Edenic         מטה   MaDTaH (down) helps explain in Deuteronomy 28:43 how the   Israelite citizen is sinking low metaphorically. ß  מטה  MaDTaH, down, low. 
         --  see           NETHER         
       G.C.: Related words meaning 'down' include Danish and Norwegian ned, and    Swedish nedat.
 
Draw in liquid, suck   shun X 608  ß   S-N  משה    MaSHaH, to draw out of water;
           משך  MaSHaKH,  to pull, draw, attract – see SHAG
 
 
Drive (cattle)   gan  趕 (赶) X 195  ß  נהע  NaHaG, to drive -- see NAG
          G.C.: nika_sn.o, to drive out (Dravidian: Ku.) Archaic Dutch negghe is to
          urge on.
 
Dry  gan  乾 (干) X195  ß   נגב NeGe(V), dry (adj. and the verb to dry).
        In Syriac as well. Appears in the Bible as the name for the arid southern
       region of Israel, the Negev, Genesis 13:1.  See 'SACK (dry).'
        G.C.:  Kanso is to dry up in Japanese.    Can is dry in Vietnamese.   Using the
        econd part of the Edenic   נגב NeGe(V) is Swahili kavu, dry.                             
                       
Duality,  couple, pair  dui 對(对)   X148    Aramaic דו DOO or DooW means two,       from           an Edenic word for twin beginning Tahf-Aleph-Vav/T-O-V.  See     DUO
          G.C.: Duo  is two in Latin; di is two in Greek;  In Avestan of ancient Persia
          two was  dva. 
 
Dye, dark eyebrow cosmetics from pigment   dᾲi  X108  ß דיו DYOA
          – see DYE   G.C.: Dye is deah in Anglo-Saxon.
          Greek ioeidēs is violet colored.
         
  
Each – see One below
 
Early, morning    Zǎoqí   早期    X810  שחר   SHaK[H]aR, day-break
      (Genesis 19:15)    See OBSCURE    
      G.C.  Japanese: 早期  sōki; East (the direction of sunrise) is  shahr  in Tibetan.
 
 
East, the direction of sunrise  dōng   东  X138  אדום  ADOAM, red  --- see DAWN  
 
Eel  shan 鱔 X574 and earthworm; also the  zhan 鱣 X819 , sturgeon  
        ß   נחש   Na[K]HaSH, snake  -- see SNAKE
        G.C.:SNIG is an eel in English dialect. It echoes 'snake.'  After an M123
        metahesis it is NGS, minor shifts away from  נחש  Na[K]HaSH, snake. 
        Eel, or any elongated fish, is  naʼashǫ́ʼii łóóʼ  in Navajo
 
Ethnic group, a people    min 民 X 456 < מין   MeeYN, species, a classification,
          a named subdivision … such as a country's minority eople.
           -- see MINUS.    
            G.C.:  French moins (less, fewer);  Polish mniej  (minus).   
 
Except (conj.)  chu  除 X 86  ß  אך  AKH, only, but (Genesis 7:23);  aka = but in        Hawaian.    -- see EACH  and Only below
 
 
Excrement  shἵ  X593   S-F צאה   TSeyAH  -- see EXIT
 

Eye (and see)     1. yan   眼 X 746   עין   [A]YiN or GHaYiN, eye ;
       G.C.: Cantonese ngaan (eye), gin (to see);  Middle English eyne
        – see EYE           Japanese me,  Korean noon ; also  kan 勘 X350,  read, survey,
        investigate (from עין         GHaYiN)  2.  mu   X466 ß S-N  עין [A]YiN, eye
 

Falcon    sun  隼 X 620ß  נץ  NayTS, falcon (Jer. 48:9).  Also, kite or hawk is           yuan  鳶(鸢) X794,5. The strength of the G.C. below allows one to assume that an S dropped in this second  Chinese bird of prey.  See NEST
                                 G.C.:   NIAS is a word for a fledgling hawk of unknown origin. Fernando Aedo captures the following N-T/S or T/S-N birds:   Aramaic: NaZa , hawk;          Bantu: Mabia suni, bird; Bantu: Nyamwezi isaansa, hawk; Bantu: Nyaturuwil   usenta, kite; Bantu: Venda nnzu,  large hawk or eagle; Dravidian: Si. sen,                          falcon, eagle or kite; Dravidian: A xen, falcon, hawk; Dravidian:Pali se_na,                       hawk; Dravidian: WPah  'en, kite ; Dravidian: RV. s'ye_na, hawk, falcon,                    eagle; Egyptian tnhr, hawk;  Mayan Ts'om, buzzard.
 

Fall, collapse see Down above
 
Farmland, field  tian  田 X64   אדמה  ADaMaH, land or          country
       – see    DEMOCRAT and see Field below
 
Fast, rapid  快 kuai X365 ,  Kuàisù   快速 1. קל QahL, swift, light [ACCELERATE]
           2.  חש K[H]ahSH, to make haste [HASTE]   -- see Quick below
          G.C.: Estonian kaiire, quick.  Eskimo Inupiaq suka (fast). 
          Turkish 'quick' is hız.
 
Father   ba 爸 X13 and fu 父 X186  ß אב ABH, father  – see Grandfather below.
        ee ABBOT 
        G.C.: Latin avus, grandfather.  Ba and bo are father or daddy in Vietnamese. 
         oː ,  father   (O'du: Khmuic Branch of Mon-Khmer)
 
Feel , sense    gan  X196  ß נגע   NaG[A]h, to touch  -- see NICK
         G.C.: In Bambara (a Hamitic language of Mali) maga means touch.
 
Field  1.  dong  垌 X 139 (in place names), 2. tian 田 X642   S-N  אדמה   ADaMaH,
        land or country  – see DEMOCRAT,  'MUD' and see Farmland above.
       G.C.:  In Bahasa Malaysia tanah, like  אדמה ADaMaH, means both dirt and         land.   In Saami, the Uralic language of Lapland, land or earth is aednan.  In          Latvian, duna is a mass of moist earth or mud.  
 
Fix   1. Ding  訂(订)  X137  revise, make corrections;   2. ding  X136, fixed, established  M132  1. תקן TaQaiN is to make straight  or repair .
         2.  תכונהT'KHOONaH means arrangement, order, structure,
        preparation. – see TECHNICAL.
       G.C.  Txukun(du) is to fix in Basque

Flat    ping 平 X508  פחוס PaK[H]OO$, flat, level.  P-K[H] root at PIT  

Flesh, meat, skin    r'ou   肉 X559 ; rang  瓤= flesh, pulp X 552  ß עור  [O]WR       or GHoWR (minus nasalized or extra N) ;  -- see  CORIUM for CARNAL          words like CARNI(VORE);  Latin caro, flesh , at CHROME 

Float – see FLY
 
Flow   lin  淋 X407 (pour...water…heavy rain… later lymph) , also  lian 漣(涟)    X397, flowing < ß  S-L נהר , to flow,   a stream  -- see INERT
 
Flute  guan  琯 X224  קנה QaNeH, hollow reed  -- see CANE
       G.C.:  The Quechua reed flute is a quena.

Fly, flying bird, hover, flutter, float   fei  飛 (飞) X 170, fu X 73; piao  漂 'float     in the air,' fu'  X181 is floating and a mayfly elsewhere. These are a reverse     
        Of  ß עף  [A]F, to fly, [O]aF or GHoaF, bird, fowl.  (with gutteral Ayin).
        See     AVIATE and UP  G.C.: Vuka = fly (Fijian), kupu = Butterfly (Malay)
 
Fog     wừ   霧 (雾) X686   ß עב [A]BH, cloud; --  see EVENING

Food   zhuan 饌 (馔) X862   זון ZOON, to feed, nourish.  Jeremiah 5:8.
 
Foresight   rui 睿(叡)  X561  ראה   R'AH , to see  -- see AURA
 
Fortune, luck    ji  吉 X283, Cantonese Gud;  גד  GaD, fortune   -- see GOOD

Full   ren  牣 X554  ß S-N  S-L    מלא  MaLAy, full.  Genesis 1:22.
 
Garden, park, courtyard, protected area  yuan (园)  X 795, 797 also pronounced juan    גן GahN, also pronounced JahN, garden, protected area                               -- See JANUARY
 
Generation    dair (Shanghai dialect showing vestigial R) 代
      דור  DOAR , generation  -- see 'DWELL,TIER'
       代  Also means age, era or period --where R not heard)
       < ß  S-D   עת    [A]iT, time,  period – see ETERNAL
         G.C.   Hungarian 'time' is  ido.
 
Give  gei  (给) X205  S-G   הב Hah(V), give !  -- see 'GIVE'
          G.C.: Hawaiian haawi means to give.

Gore  --  see Nail below.

Grace, kindness   en   X157, also yun (园) X803  חן  [K]HaiN, grace  and חנון           [K]HaNOON means kind, merciful, gracious – see KIND
           G.C.: Japanese onkei is grace and favor, and onjin is a benefactor. 
 
Grandfather (address to elderly man)     fu X185  is a term of respect for an elderly man.    
           ß אב  AhBH, father, ancestor --  see ABBOT   
            G.C.:  Latin avus, grandfather; Bpoo is the grandfather term in Thailand.
 
Grind  chong  舂 X82    טחן  DTaK[H]ahN  (grind) and נגס NahGa$ (bite) are at           GNAW  see Pulverize below. C.G.: nuku, is to chew, in Fijian.
 
Grow, develop, rise, increase   zhang 長(长) X822,3 also zhong 種 (种)
          X 851  specifically on plant growth צמח  TSeMaK[H], to grow, sprout
           -- see SUMAC G.C.: Nahuati (Aztec) tomatl gives us that tall-sprouting
        T(S)-M vegetable plant we call the TOMATO; an early Slovak tribe
         used the same Edenic word for the Old World potato: zemiak.  
 
 
Guard (visual)   kan  看 X349, and guan 觀 (观) X223  S-G עין   GHaYiN, to see
  --  see EYE 
G.C.:  In Romany (Gypsy) guttural Ayin-Noon 'eye' is acans.   Another KN eye from guttural Ayin-Noon is Telugu (from Sanskrit): kanu. See English KEN.   Japanese also has several k-a-n words that echo  עין GaYahN (to look at). These include kanran suru (to see, view) and kantoku (supervision).

Guard    (physical) 1. gan 干 X193  shield, defend;  2.  kan  看       X349  <  1.   הגן    HaGaiN, to defend  -- see 'January' 2. עין    GHaYin,  to watch --  see EYE and 'Look at' below
G.C.: c'^n, serve, guard (Mayan: Ch'ol); a_nga, to intercept, prevent, defend,  herd (Dravidian: Kui); mki, guard, protect and, the reverse, ikm, shield (Egyptian); cinga, to protect, guard, herd, ward off, parry (Bantu: Emakhua)
 
Habitual     guan 慣(惯)  X225  ß  מנהג   MiN'HahG, custom -- see NAG
       G.C.: ch^n, constantly, repeatedly, again (Mayan: Ch'ol); nica, constant     (Dravidian: OM.) ; ann, turn back, repeat, come back, , bring back           (Egyptian)'hañgi, again, once more (Bantu: Sukuma)
 
Hair, a tuft of a child's hair, or any fiber    tiao X644   חוט [K]HOODT means               thread            -- see CHAETA
 
Hand
   of human:  shǒu  手  X598
   of animal: talon, claw, paw  zhua   X860 ß  אחז  A[K]HaZ, to seize,         grasp  -- see HAS,  see Seize below
           G.C.: 'Hand' words include: Hungarian kez, Natchez (Cree/Amerind) izha.       
 
Handfuls, holding with both hands    peng 捧 X499 M312 metathesis of חפן      [K]HoaFahN, closed hand, handful -- see 'FIN'
 G.C.: c'^b, c'ab, q'ab, c'^b, c'ob is a hand, handful or numerical classifier in all Mayan dialects; kapat.i_, measure equal to a double-handful (Sanskit); bukka, handful, handful of rice (Dravidian: Pkt.); paho, handful of raw cotton (Dravidian: S.); mfungu,   a handful of something (Bantu : Mambwe);
The alleged Indo-European  'root' penkwe (five) is the given source of FINGER,  KENO, PENTA-, PUNCH, PUNJAB, and QUINTET. German funf and Sanscrit pancha are five terms.). Kurdish penc and Luri panch also mean 'five.'
 
 
Handle of a utensil    pan 鋬 X493 < חפן   [K]HoaFahN.  hand, handful
         – see 'FIN' and Handfuls above
 
Handsome, beautiful  yun 贇 (赟)  X800  נאה  NAh'eH, pretty, comely – see      BONNY
 
Hate    zeng  憎 X813,4 (Cantonese tsang)  שנאה  SaNAh, hate -- see XENOPHOBIA
            G.C.:  shima, to hate, abhor, dislike (Bantu: Kalanga),
          toyani, to hate each other (Bantu: Lozi)
 
Hawk -- see  Kite below   
 
Head    1. ding頂(顶) X136,  crown of the head; to carry with one's head. ß  N
  S-G      2. tou  頭 (头) X653 ß S-G  קדקד  QahDQoaD, crown of head
            – see HEAD      
  G.C.: taauko is head in Nepali.
            Ethiopic qadama means he preceded   (or headed for).
 
Hear -- see Listen below
   
Heat, bake or broil   kang  炕 X350 חם  K[H]aM means warm or hot
           – see          CALM
 
Help  zhu   X858   ß  עזר [O]ZeR, aid or help  -- see AUXILIARY
          G.C.: To help or support in Hittite (extinct Indo-European) is sardi
 
Hidden: as precious treasure is stored zang  藏(蔵)
          X808, as a body is buried zang  葬 X808 and the term for internal organs         zang   臟 (脏) X808  S-F  צנע TSiNGHah, verb of hiding and modesty, noun of privacy and secrecy
 
High   gao   高 X199  גוה  Ga(V)oa'aH, high  -- see HIGH 
          G.C.: ega, upwards (Dravidian: Te.); qAi, to be raised on high, uplifted
          (Egyptian).

Hill, mound, mountain  1. ling 陵  X409,  2. ling 嶺(岭) X411<  ß  N. גל GahL,        mound, hill, marker    -- see  OROLOGY
 
Hire, rent   lìn X409    ß     מחירM'[K]HeeYR, hire,  price;  מכר MeKHeR, price,
         sale
 
Hold, grasp     1.  zhi  執 (执) X841  2. zhuo 執 (执)  X866, catch or capture         ß  אחז  Ah[K]HaZ, hold, grasp -- see HAS
 
Hold in one's hand  ti 提  X638  ß S-D  יד  YahD   -- see KARATE
        G.C.:  Japanese te, hand; Nepali haat, hand.

Hole, pit  1.  kan  X348,   2. niche   kan  龕 (龛)X348 , 3.  cavity,        burrow    ku  窟 X362  1.  נקב   NeQe(V), recess, hole  2.  קב  QeBH,  subroot          in cavity, celle -- see  CAVITY  and see Crevice above

Honest , sincere    dun  惇 X149  ß   S-D  S-N  אמתי AMeeTeeY, truthful –
         see  'ETY MOLOGY'
       G.C.: tinnani, straight, straightforward, honest (Dravidian: Te.)
       mAat, truth, right-doing, righteousness (Egyptian); niti niti, truth, veracity,         sincerity (Bantu: Lyon Fang)
 
 
Hop  bèng 蹦 X31 <     N  S-G S-B    קפץQeePaiTS, to hop or leap – see HIP
 
Horse (ancient breed)     su  驌 (骕) X616  סוס  $OO$, horse -- see PEGASUS          for ma 馬(马) too.
 
I, me  yu 予/余 X789   -י -eeY suffix in past perfect is the 1st person marker
         –see   'I'
        G.C.: ist person pronouns incl. Je (French), Ya (Russian), Yo (Spanish)
 
Identify with   tong X649(98)   ß N.  S-G  S-D    יחד  YaK[H]ahD,  this further    proves that Yitro in Exodus 18:9 wasn't 'delighted' but was identifying,     was in sympathy with Israel. – see JUXTAPOSE   VaYaK[H]eD Yitro, see      'identify' above – not the mistranslation 'delighted' see 'together' and  
          'unite'
         G.C.: Cantonese yatchai is together; yhta or yhden is 'one' in Finnish.
          Ikut is to join in Indonesian. Ekataa is unity (Nepali).
 
Ignite, light   ran  燃 X551 ß נור  NOOR, light, fire -- see MINARET
G.C.:  Aramaic NOORAh (fire) and NaHoR (light); Arabic nahar, day time…when it is light;   Korean nal, day (light time);  Modern Greek ime'ra (day);  Mohawk 'dawn' : rhen.
 
Illness, ailment  ying  恙 X750   M312   נגע NeG[A]h, afflict, infect, plague  
       --see NOXIOUS  See Infection  below.
 
Inclination, slanting (physical leaning and a preference) pn X502
       פניה PiNeeYaH    (inclination), a natural extension of  פנה  PaNaH (to turn) –
       see PENCHANT
        G.C.: Korean won is to desire ; Dutch wensen is to PINE for something.
 
Infant, newborn baby  yang  嬰(婴) X773 , also yong X779, a pupa יונק 
        YOANaiQ, suckling – see YOUNG See Baby and Child A and B above.
 
Infection,  a festering carbuncle on the skin  yong癰 (痈)  M312  נגע NeG[A]h,           infection,  plague .   See NOXIOUS.  See Illness above.
          G.C.: Latin noxa (injury, hurt, damage).
 
Insufficient – see Not
 
Interiority   bian  砭 X37 perform acupuncture (PIN),  bian  窆 X38 bury פנים PiNeeYM,   interior -- see PENETRATE and POINT
          G.C.:  mba, inside (Bantu: Kibosho). The Greek name PENELOPE
          means 'needle.'  Sumerian apin is a plow

Island      yu  嶼 (屿)  X790   ß  אי  EeY, island -- see 'ISLAND'
          G.C.:  Iw, (pronounced ioo) is an island (Egyptian)
 
Judge      tuan  彖 X658    S-D  דון  DOON  to judge.   See DEAN and DEEM at           DAMN  and LAW below.     G.C.:  Dumbuo, judge (Bantu: Kibosho).   Tham is to try or judge in Vietnamese

Juice     shen X583,  zhi  汁  ß  S-F S-N     מיץ MeeYTS, juice, extract 
          -- see MOIST
          G.C.:  Sona, juice that exudes from plants (Dravidian: Te.).
          German most is fruit juice.

Kindness    ren   X553   S-N    רחם   Ra[K]HeM, to be kind – see MERCY
          G.C.:  The Finnish 'mercy' is armo.  'Kindness' words with liquid-nasal
          include French merci ('thank you').
 
Kite (hawk, bird of prey)  yuān  X795    נץ NayTS, hawk (Leviticus 11:16)
G.C.: Aramaic: NaZa , hawk; Bantu: Mabia suni, bird; Bantu: Nyamwezi isaansa, hawk; Bantu: Venda nnzu,  large hawk or eagle; Dravidian: Si. sen, falcon, eagle or kite; Dravidian: Pali se_na, hawk; Dravidian:WPah  'en, kite ; Dravidian: RV. s'ye_na, hawk, falcon, eagle.
 
Know, understand   dong 懂 X138  דע  DGHa, know (imper.). ידע  YoDayGHa, to      know  -- see IDEA  and ORTHODOX
          G.C.:  The Indo-European 'root' tong is to think.
          Ootaj, know (Mayan: Jacaltec).
 
Lacking – see Not
 
Language    yan 言 X742    ß   ניב    NeeYBH (speech, dialect)
           G.C.:  Belarusian and Ukrainian movu.
 
 
Laugh, expressed amusement   xaio    笑(咲)X710   שחוק   S' [K]HOAQ, laughter
          (also   צחוק TS'[K]HOAQ)   -- see CHUCKLE
          G.C.:  In Hindi (Dravidian)  צחק TSaK[H]aQ is an H-S which is reversed and                 nasalized: hansi is to laugh. Maya tsek means laugh.   To jest in Spanish,
          guasa, requires reversing צ-ח Tsadi-Het and dropping Koof/Q.
 
 Lay aside, store   zhừ   X859 <   אצר  ATSoaR, to store  -- see STORE  and Store
   (v.)  below)

Law (standard law), to deliberate, weigh  dian   典 X128  <דין DeeYN, law
see DEAN and DAMN
G.C.:  Tham is to try or judge in Vietnamese. Japanese  handan is a judgement; handan suru is to judge.
 
Leader, official, officer guan  X222    ß   מנהיג   MaNHeeYG, leader  
          – see NAG   See Drive above and Official below.
          G.C.: monaka , general, leader, chief (Dravidian: Te.); mungo', leading      position (Bantu: Lozi).
 
Leave, go away , escape  zou  X875   צא TSAy, to go out – see EXIT
            G.C.:    In Cantonese zou is to come out or discharge.
 
Letter     1. zi    X872, character, phonetic sign and word,  2. shu  書 (书) X600,           document  ß   אות  Oa(S), letter  Jp. aizu (sign) -- see OATH
          G.C.:  etal, sign, symbol (Mayan: Uspantec)
 
Lift     lin  拎 X406  הרים  HayReeYM, to lift  L shift) -- see RUM
           G.C. : -inula, lift up, pick up (Bantu: Doe)  
 
 
Listen, hear  tīng    听  X648   ß  N. S-G  of הטה  HeeDTaH, listening,
     literally bending an ear or inclining to hear  -- see NET
      G.C.: itey,  listen (Chumash/Hokan of Calif.;  achtloss, heedless

Live  on   chi  持 X78  חי  K[H]ahY , to live  -- see HYGIENE
           G.C.: Old Indic ayu means alive. Quechua chay is a living person. Choy in a    Turkish dialect means 'wild.' 
 
Locale: village, farm, place of business, manor  zhuang  ()  X862
          M132 S-F S-G      שכון  SHiKOON, dwelling  -- see SCENE
 
Look at, watch    guan 觀(观) X223 <  עין  GHaYeN 'to direct one's attention to'
        --  see AIM and 'Guard' above
 
Make, create   1 zou 做 X883 ß עשה  GHaSaH, to make, produce, do 2. zao  造    X810  יצור YiTSOOR, to fashion [an end-Resh/R is always dropped]  
          -- see STYLE and Do above.
            G.C. Hacer is to make in Spanish.
 
Mama       mu  母 X466; ma  媽 (妈) X433 , ß אם  EM, mother, while  nai means     breasts, milk,  suckling and grandmother X471  <  S-N -- see MAMA
             G.C.: Bantu mamas include: mau (Pongoro) and umai (Bungu),
Mayan mamas include me' (Tzotzil).  Nasal-vowel 'mother' words are an
acknowledged human universal.
 
Man, male    nan 男X471 S-N אמן OaMahN, craftsman – see MAN
 
Material (non-spiritual), dust, dirt   chen  塵 (尘) X73 S-N חמר  K[H]eyMeR,
         material, clay.  See MAROON.
 
Me (1st per. Pron.) in dial. I, We, My or Our is  an  俺 X6.  Me in Cantonese is ngo   我, in  Korean na, and in Basque ni.    אני  ANeeY, me;  אנו  ANOO is we.
         -- see ME

Middle, in the…, or halfway, partners and mix   ban  半 X18  בין  BeYN, between,       among, interpolate  -- see Center above, and see BONE
 
Miracle, supernatural, mythic   shen 神 X583  ß S-F  נס Nai$, sign,
          wondrous event,  … miracle (Numbers 26:10).   -- see SIGN
 
Mist – see Fog
 
Mistreat , loss, disadvantage  yuan  冤 X 794; also  nao X473 = disturb   ß נוי ע   
          [E]eNOOY, affliction. עני  [A]hNeeY, poor, lowly. ענה  [A]NaH, to afflict
           --  see 'ANNOY'   see Oppress below
         G.C.: Hawaiian inea means hardship and suffering
 
Morphine, a bitter alkaloid  mă חY  X434 ; a foreign borrowing, but important
           because the R of moRphine and  מר MahR, bitter has been replaced by
           ă   [MARINE]
 
Moth  zhừ    X859   ß    עש  [A]hS, moth.  Job 4:19
 
Mother -- see Mama above
 
Motion, movement  yun  運 (运) X802  נוע NOO[A], motion, movement  -- see 'MOTION' See Move below.
 
Mound,  dun 墩 X149 (60)  נד  NaiD, mound   see Raised land below
          -- see DUNE
          GC : The ANDES mountains derive from Quechua Indian andi (high crest)
 
Mountain  shᾱn   山  X570 , mountain ß   S-F   נס  Nai$, ensign, banner standard held aloft, as the נס  Nai$ on a hill of Isaiah 30:17.  Mountains are often sacred places of pilgrimage.  G.C.:  Korean mountain is 산 san    see SIGN
      
Move, shift    nuo 挪 X485   נע , נוע   N[A] or NOO[A], move  --  see Genesis 4:12       NOD or  HAUNT  G.C.: Spanish andar is to move or go.
                                      Indo-European roots: neu (to nod). meue (to push away).
 
Mouth of river     pu  浦 X513   פה    PeH, mouth  -- see OPEN and Nose below
          G.C.: Ip is a Korean mouth; Paa  is an Eskimo: Inupiak doorway

Mud, mire 1.  ni 泥X476 (later, cement); also  yuan  淵 (渊) X794, abyss,
           deep pool     ß   יון   YaVaiN, mud, mire  -- see FENWAY
          GC: Spanish fango is mud. Swamp is beung in Thai. The WN in    Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada), means swamp in Cree (Native American)
 
           2. mud, shoreline silt  tan 灘(滩)  X628  S-D  אדמה ADaMaH
           G.C.:  dam (earth for the Kiowa Indians), din (ground in Thai), tanah     (ground in Malay), tian (field in Chinese) and timani (mainland in Eskimo).     Bahasa Malaysia tanah, like  אדמה ADaMaH, means both dirt and land.
 
 
Mulberry    ren 葚 X556    ß   S-N  מר  MahR, bitter  -- see MARINE  
           G.C. : Latin amarus (bitter), the M-R of Latin morus (mulberry) shifted to        M-L in the bitter-sweet MULBERRY

Name, surname   xing 姓 X721 S-N    שם   SHeM, name  -- ee ASHAMED
          and the  'reputation' entry below
          G.C.:  Bantu iziina, name  (Fipa, Hangaza and Lambya dialects)
Nail, to drive a nail, gore, staple and insect sting: ding 釘(钉)   X137
 ß  N  S-G S-D    עקץ[O]aQeTS is a sting, point, or prick – see STING
 
Narrow  zhăi narrow   窄 X818   צר TSahR,  narrow – see STRESS
 (End- ר Resh/R is always dropped in Chinese, for examples: zhu stop,  halt X859 
 <  עצר [A]TSahR, stop, restrain – see ARREST and Stop below;  
 zhu pig  X856  חזיר [K]HaZeeYR, pig – see HYOSCYAMINE and Pig below; 
 zhừ to store  X859 <   אצר  ATSoaR, to store  -- see STORE  and  Lay aside
 elow)

Neck   … originally yoke or collar, reverse to li(n)g 領(领) X410  neck-piece for          oxen to pull, a yoke  ß  עול  GHOAL, collar – see  below and 'Collar'
           G.C.: Kaulua is a yoke in Hawaiian. Kall is neck in Maya: Yukatan.
 
 
 
Neck-piece for oxen to pull, a yoke  yang  X750   1. ענק [A]NaQ, necklace
           2.  חנק [K]HeNeQ, to choke the neck    – see  NECK
          G.C: The Cantonese neck is gan  (reversed nasal-guttural).
 
Needle  zhen針X832   <  צן TSaiN is a barb, thorn, briar or biting snare;    צנה TSeeNaH
           is a fishing hook ;   צנין TSaNeeYN is a thorn or prick . צנורה   TSeeNOARaH
           is a hook or needle.  -- see TINE. Reverse צ-נ Tsadi-Noon, for the  
          נעצוץ   N'[A]TSOOTS, thornbush -- see 'NETTLE.'  
           G.C.: Dm, from Tsadi-Noon, is sharp and to pierce in Ancient Egyptian.
           German zinke is a spike or prong; the Italian tusk or fang is zanna.
 

New     xin/shin  新 X717    שונה  SHOANeH, changed, different…thus new
          -- see CHANGE  G.C.: Bantu: shannaino is new (Mwera1 dialect).
 

Nibble       ken   啃 X358   טחן    DTaK[H]aN , grind -- see CHIN
          and  Pulverize below.  C.G.: Sanskrit kan.d is to pound; kat.t.am is chin           (Dravidian:Ta.); -kukuna is to gnaw, grind (Bantu: Venda)
 
Nod head up and down    dian 點(点) X 129 ß  נדד   NaDaD, shake, rock, swing
          -- see NOD  
          G.C.:  (Dravidian: K.)  danun, to shake; tÈtEm, to shake (Proto-Bantu)

Noise , sound   xiang 響(响) X706 שאון  SHAoWN, noise, sound -- Isaiah 24:8
           -- see SOUND   G.C.: (Mayan: Jacaltec) lo'uson, music; (Dravidian: Pkt.)
          san.a, sound, (Dravidian: Si.) san-a, sound; Egyptian: Sma, make music,          smi, report, proclaim; (Bantu: Kalanga) suma, make noise
  
Nose  bi 鼻 X31  ß S-B  אף  AhPH, nose -- see OPEN and Mouth above
          G.C.: (Dravidian: Ta.) a vi, to gape, yawn; (Swahili) pua nose
          (Bantu: Bonde2)  n'pua, nose; Paa  is an Eskimo: Inupiak doorway

Not    mei  沒 X443, ( also: m'  ח'  X433, not have, be without, and X485,
           lacking, insufficient) ß  S-N אין AYiN, nothing, naught,  there is not, not
          -- see NO   G.C.:  (Mayan: Itza, Chol) ma'an, there isn't, none, nothing, no
(Mayan: Yucatecan) ma', not, no ; Old Irish ni, not. Polish NO is nie
 
 
Obstruct, block, place a barrier   zhang  障X824 M213, S-F, S-N   חסם    [K]Ha$ahM, to prevent, block, muzzle. See STEM
           G.C.meaning to close up: Irish dunta, Norwegian stengt and
           Swedish stanga.
 
 
Ocean    yang 洋 X 748,9; ying  瀛 X776   ים  YaM, ocean  (Gen. 1:10), AGaN,           AGaM (basin, lake)  cognates: Agean , Cantonese yam is to drink,
          --  see OCEAN
           G.C.: Amerind words include: Andean: goñ, water 
          Amahuaca: junú, liquid, and junúnha, sea, great river or lake
          Arawakan/Yaru: jiñaa water, river, rain .
          Equatorial/ Asheninca: kõ jiñaa water, river, rain
 
1) Officer      jiang (general feudal administrator) 將(将) X303  סגן  $'GahN or  $'JaN  -- see CHECKMATE.  
 
2)  Official   guan  官  X222  S-G  כהן  KoHaiN, chief – see KHAN
          G.C.:  (Dravidian: P.lex.)  kan.oi, a government agriculture official;
          Japanese Shogun, official.       
 
Offspring   zi   X870  sons and daughters   צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring
         – see EXIT   and Descendant above
          G.C.:  The Indo-European reconstructed root for 'son' is seue
           (to give birth).  Uzazi is birth in Swahili.
 
Olive  gan    X186  ענב  GHaNa(V), berry, grape  -- see OLIVE
 
Only   chi  啻 X81 , and ge X205 (individual)  S-G  ß אח   AhKH, but, only 
         -- see EACH  and EXCEPT above
         G.C.: (Mayan: Uspantec) ic'an, alone, and qe, only. (Dravidian: Sh.)  ekh,
         alone ; (Bantu: Chewa) yekha, he only

Open   1. pou  剖  X512 (cut open), 2.  u  浦  X513 (river mouth), 3.  pu 普X513    (open to all),  4. pu 曝 X514 (exposed)  <  1. פה PeH, mouth; פתה PaTaH, to         open  2. ß אף    AhPH, nose, nostril (the orifice) – see OPEN
           G.C.:  (Mayan: Ch'ol)  ch'ip' open slightly ; (Dravidian: Br.) ba, mouth,
            aperture ; (Egyptian) pgA, entrance, (of building, of horizon), mouth
            (of valley
 
Or (conj.).  and, as yet, but  er  而 X158  או    OW, or, if, but  -- see OR
           G.C.:   (Mayan: Huastec) wa ; reverse to reu for 'or' in Thai
 
 
Oppress, force   ken  X357  S-G   ענוי GHeNOOY, affliction; ענה  GHaNaH, to       afflict; GHaNa$, rape --  see 'ANNOY'  see Mistreat above
           G.C.:  Latin nocere, to annoy.  Proto Polynesian ingo, to abuse, persecute
Other  bi  X33, also in the opponent's score bi  比X32; bi   皕 X35  two        hundred; parting from another  biao 鑣 (镳) X41; sharing with another biao           俵X43; the             distinction of another bie  别 X43. This theme of two-ness is in                ב B' or Bet, letter and number two– see BOTH
            G.C.: Bi is two in Basque. In Japanese, there is byo (second)
            and bai (twice).
 
Outside: 1. pull out, extract  zhuo  X867 ß חוץ K[H]OOTS 2. outside land,         away           from one's place xiang  鄉 (乡)  X704  ß  N  חוץ         K[H]OOTS
          -- see EXIT  C.G: Chut is out in Cantonese; Japanese tsuiho, to exile
or turn out
 
Overflow   lan  濫(滥) X379   ß S-L  נהר   NaHaR, to flow --  see INERT
         G.C.:  longa, brook, stream (Bantu: Ntuzu) nahir, naihar, a canal, a stream
         (Dravidian: P.lex.)

Pain (medical, from disease)  guan 瘝 X224   ß of  נגע  NaG[A]h,  lague  ß         S-G   נכה NaKHaH and    נכא NaKAh are wounding words, the latter meaning
       'deeply stricken'   -- see NOXIOUS  and the Disease entry above
         G.C.:  yajin, ill (Mayan: Uspantec); kuna_ni,  gripping pain (Dravidian: B.);
         nqm, suffer, be afflicted (Egyptian); gi'no, plague of insects
         (Bantu: Sukuma)
 
Pair – see Two

Partial, favoring one side     pian  偏 X503 פנה  PaNaH, point, turn to.     Deuteronomy 31:20 'turn to' (to worship), Leviticus 26:9 'look with favor.' -      - see 'Point'
        C.G.: Peny is 'to bend' in Maidu Indian; Pina is 'he turned' in Syriac
 
Peace, tranquility    ning(宁)X482    נוח NOAK[H], quiet, rest      
       – see  NIGHT and HAUNT  G.C.:  Sleep in Saami (Lapp) is nohkkat

Pearl    pin 玭 X506,7    פנינה   PiNeeYNaH, pearl (Lamentations 4:7) 
        See PENETRATE  G.C.: A pearl in Samoan is penina. A pond is a bin or        bilabial-nasal container for fish, a pound for dogs, a banzai for miniature
        trees, etc.

People, a group of people, the folk  min  民   X456   המון   HaMOAN inI Samuel       14:16 is specifically 'the multitude' of people  [MANY]
 
Period of time – see Generation
 
Petty, unimportant, small  Chinese   xiăo 小 X709 ( pronounced 'seo' in 
      Mandarin, 'seow' in the less-clipped Cantonese)   צער TSa[A]hR  (small,
      unimportant)  It was not borrowed,  nor the word for number ZERO. [ZERO]
      G.C.:  Atom, the smrt particle, is zarre in Persian/Farsi. 
 
Pig  zhū   猪 X856 ß  [K]HaZeeYR, pig  -- see HYOSCYAMINE
    (for dropped end-Resh/R, see Narrow above)
G.C.: Estonian  piglet is kesik; Finnish pig is sikka; Malagassy (Madagascar) pig is kisoa; Malay: Tidore pig is sohof.
 
 
Pipe  guan 琯 X224   S-G  קנה QaNeH, stem, stalk, reed, shaft  -- see 'CAE'
       See Flute above, and Stem below
 
Pit, hole    kan   坎 X350  ß    נקיק  NiQeeYQ, cleft, crevice Jer. 13:4 
          – see CAVITY
 
Pleasant, sweet, agreeable  甘gān  X195 ß    ענג  GHoaNeG, pleasure
– see HONEY   G.C. :  German hoeing  (thus English) is honey.
Honey is hunaja  in Finnish.
 
 
 
Plant -- see Grow above, and Tree below
 
Point    bian 砭 X37. indicating position or direction, 2. side, edge, 3.  bian 鯿 X38 ointy-headed fish, 4. perform acupunture); also feng  峰 X176-178 wind           風 (风), summit 峰, point of knife 鋒. See Partial. פנה  PaNaH, point; פינה    PeeYNaH, corner -- see POINT, PINNACLE, PENGUIN, NIB ,                   WIND. C.G.: pna, turn upside down, turn against someone (Egyptian);
        anani, highest point, outmost (Bantu: Mpoto)
 
Pole – see Stem below
Portrait  -- see Resemble
 
Pour (liquid into cup)  zhēn    X833 <  ß  נזל  NoZeL, pour  -- see NOZZLE
 
Pour water on, or add water to  chōng X82  N  שקה  S(H)aQaH is to water or
      irrigate; שקע  SHaQ[A]h is to dip, be submerged or immersed in water
see Water below, and  ee SOAK.

Pulverize, grains or medicine    chong  舂 X82    טחן  DTaK[H]ahN  (grind) and          נגס NahGa$ (bite) are at GNAW 

Pure -- see Sacred below
 
Quick  1. su   X615  2. zhou 驟 (骤)  X854, rapid  ß     אוץOoWTS. Cantonese     sook (fast) ß ח-ץ Het-Tsadi is the sub-root of נחץ   Na[K]HahTS , to press    or urge and etc. – see Fast above ,see HASTE
 
Raised land (for sacrifices or planting) tan 壇 X629 נד  NaiD, mound, heap
       see Mound above  -- see DUNE

Raw    yuan 原  X797
 
Recognize    rèn   X555, to recognize, to know, to admit   נכר NaKeeR, to recognize
 
G.C. Mon-Khmer from FA: gənal/kənal ,  gơnăl/kơnăl   to recognize, know   (Bahnar [Golar]: Bahnaric Branch) M213;
ʔnhnal   recognize   (Tampuan [C]: Bahnaric Branch)
 
Repeat, or duplicate  chong   X83   שנה  SHeeNaH, repeat; root of (number) 
        two.    Repeat in Thai is sahm  ee Shift below  -- see CHANGE

Red   1. hong 红X249  2. tang  赯 X633 (mada-mada in Australian aborigine)  אדם     ADoaM, red -- see     DAWN

Regret, not satisfied      han  憾 X240 S-N ß נחם  Na[K]HaM, regret (Genesis           6:7) For han antonym of satisfaction  -- see 'REST'

Reputation, fame     sheng  聲(声) X586    שמע  SHeMaGH,  fame, reputation
       (see ANNOUNCE  above)     Shum = noise (Russian)
 
Reside, live, stay in a place  zhu 住 X858  ß  שב   SHai(V)  Genesis 13:6
       see Sit below
 
Resemble, portrait (likeness) xiang  像 X707  The S-M family of similitude
        includes סמל $eMeL, image ;     תמונה(S)iMOONaH picture, and   שם SHeM,
        a name (image of essence) – see SIMULATION [George Chen]
 
Respect, esteem, to revere   feng  奉 X178 ß N.  S-G  S-B      כבוד KaBHOAD,         respect, honor, verb too.  – see HEFT

Rest, sleeping soundly, contentment    han  酣 X237  ß  נוח   Noa[K]H (rest)  Na[K]HaT (rest, repose – Isaiah 30:15) --  see han antonym at 'regret'
 
River    han 漢 (汉) X 239,  chuan  川 X89  H-N is dominant root of river names,
         נחל   Na[K]HaL, stream; נהר   NaHaR, river (end liquid drops)         see CATSKILL, INERT, 'RUN' Joint of rivers  rui 汭 X561  ß                  YI'OAR, river  -- see RIO GRANDE
 
Rivers' confluence rui 汭 X561  ß  יאור  YI'OAR, river 
           -- see 'RIO GRANDE
 
Rod     kan  桿 (杆) קנה  QaNeH , stalk, stem  -- see CANE

Room, hall     ting  廳(厅) X647 ß  חדר  K[H]aDaR, room  -- see HOARD
 
 
Sacred  (pure, bright, magnificent, sacred, moral)  sheng  聖 (圣) X587    N  S-F  S-G
        זך ZaKH   means pure and clear, as the consecrating oil of Exodus  27:20;
          זכה ZaKaH is innocent and pure.    Sacred is pure; see 'SACRED.'
           G.C.:  Malay suci  (pure) and Thai   ศักดิ์สิทธิ์   sạkdi̒s̄ithhi̒   (pure); Indo-European 'root'
            of sacred is sac.  

Say  see 'DISCUSS' above 
Scatter       san  散 X566  ß   ניסה   Nai$, to flee  -- see NOSTALGIA
 
Season of year or time of day (hot or cold period)  tian  X642 S-N
           תם TahM, completed, ended period. -- see TIME
            G.C.:  Tuma is a period of time in Bambara (Hamitic). Tihng is a stop or
           pause in Cantonese.  
 
Sect or Class   men  們(们) X446  מיו  MeeYN, kind, species
       -- see MINISTER and MINUS

See, look   a) shi 視(视) X595 , b) zhŭ X858 to gaze steadily, look from afar  ß חזה      [K]HaZaH,  to look at. See Stare below– see GAZE and SEE
           G.C.:   The Indians of NW Washington State have a term sey-a (to see).
            To see is seh(en) in German


  
 
Seize,  take hold of  1.  zhuā  X860   2. take by force  zhan 佔 (占) X819 N.
          ß  אחז  A[K]HaZ, to seize, grasp  -- see HAS

Self, oneself     zi  自 X871,2   אתו Oa(S)OA, itself     see SUICIDE
 
Senior, older   zun  尊 X879  ישן  YaSHaN, old – see 'SENIOR'
 
Shaft – see Stem below

Shield      gan  桿/干(杆) X193  מען  [Ma]GeN, a shield -- see JANUARY
          and  Defend  above
 
Shift      -- see Change above
 
Ship  --  see Boat above
 
Shoot, blossom, new plant growth  sǔn  hoots (bamboo, edible),
           and sūn fragrant grass both X619    ß  נצה NeeTSaH, blossom
 
Side by side   bing   (,) X46, also bian 邊 (边 )X38 border between      regions   בין BaYN  See Differentiate above
 
Sign, omen, portend zhao  招 X826  or a signifying gesture zhao X824  אות       OW(S),  sign, symbol (of covenant…).   -- see OATH
 
Sing   Chang  唱 X70  1. קינה QeeYNaH, loud dirge 2. קנה QaNaH hollow reed,         pipe (piping is singing or chanting)  -- see KEENING
 
Single, only    du  獨 (独) X143   אחד  E[K]HaD in Hebrew[K]HaD, one (Aramaic)     -  see EACH
 
Sink  chen  沈 (沉) X73  ß S-N   מוך  MOOKH, sink, go lower  -- see MEEK
 
Sit   1. zuo  X881  2. zuo X881, seat   S-F  שבSHai(V), sit  see Reside above
 
Sleep    sleepy, drowsy:  meng X448   ; dream:   meng 夢 (梦) X 449; 
       Mn X452,  sleep  ß   נום   NOOM, slumber, drowse  -- see NUMB
       G.C.:  Japanese nemui means sleepy; nemuru is sleep. Reverse to mania
       (inactive, sleepy) in Hawaiian. Also reversing   נום  NOOM is umagn, sleep,
       in Mapuche (isolate of Chile)   
 
Small – see Petty above
 
Smile  shen  X582   M132 S-N   שמח SaMayah[K]H is a joyful satisfaction
          G.C.: Indo-European 'root' is smei (to laugh, smile).
           Nepali muskaan = smile
 
Smoke   mάi X 436   S-N    ענן   [A]NahN, cloud. Genesis 4:19.  – see YEN
       G.C.:  Japanese Kumo (cloud) and French nuage (cloud) reverse the ע-ן  
Ayin-Noon KH-N (M) or GN) with the guttural ע Ayin/GN. The soft,    vowelized   ע Ayin/[A] may be behind NUANCE (from a cloud word).
 
 
Snake – see Eel above
 
Spear, short javelin   chάn X p.65  חנית  K[H]aNeeYT, spear of I Samuel 18:11
        G.C.: Latin contus and Sanskrit kuntas mean spear [Benjamin Davies]
 
Snore    han  鼾 X 237  ß  נחר   Na[K]HOAR , snore, snort  -- see SNORKEL

Some, any     shen   詵 X583   שום  SHOOM, some, any --  see SOME 

Sons (formerly daughters too)    zi 子 X869, 870  צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring – see     SON
 
Sound, noise   xiang  響 (响)  X705   שמע SHeMGHah, report, repute, what is heard -- see SOUND

Source of a river, fountainhead      yuan  源 X 797     עין[A]YiN or GHaYin, water      source  -- see  ORIGIN
 
Speech, word  yan  言 X742  ß ניב   NeeY(V) – see PHONETICS
      and 'DISCUSS' above
 
Spread out, open up, unfold  zhan  展 X819  צמח   TSeMa[K]H, sprout out, spring    up, grow like plants  -- see SUMAC   See Grow above

Stain, to make dirty  zhan  黵 X819  שמץ   SHeMeTS, a stain, smudge   -- see   SMUT
 
Stalk – see Stem below
 
Staple together  --  see Nail above.
 
Stare  zhu   X858   ß חזה  [K]HaZaH,  to look at. See See above – see GAZE
 
State, country  guo 國 (国) X 232  Gimel-Vav-Yod,  גוי  GOAY, nation (Genesis          15:14) 
 
Steamed   zhēng  蒸  X835   ß   ענן   GHaNahN, cloud  -- see FOG.
           G.C:  The Farsi/Persian 'fog,'  meh,  reverses S-N  ענן GHaNaN, cloud.  A cloud in Indonesian is awan (either an extended  [A](V), obscuring cloud or another  ענן [A]NaN, cloud as visible evaporation.
 
Stem  gan 竿 X194 pole, staff and main stalk of a bamboo, gan  稈 (秆) X195           stalk of a plant and shaft of an arm or barrel of a rifle, gan X197 trunk, the   main part, shank , geng  X207 stalk, stem    קנה QaNeH, stem, stalk, reed,
          shaft  -- see CANE
          G.C.: Greek kanna (reed, cane);  Kano in Hawaiian is a large, hard stem or a     tool handle
 
Sting, insect bite --  see Nail above.
 
 
Stir     tsuk  搐 X88 (chu as jerk, twitch, spasm)  S-F   זע TSOO[A], shake     -- see
           SEISMIC
 
Strike , afflict     jian  殲(歼) X297 annihilate, mace, wipe out 戬 X300, sword 劍      X303,  arrow, weapon 箭 304,  ß  נגע    NaG[A]h or NaJah, strike,  נגף             NaGaF or NaJaF   -- see NICK  
 
 
Store, hoard, hide  tún X659    טמן  DTaMahN, to hide. Conceal, TM root of 'treasure'   מטמון  MaDTMOAN . See also  Lay aside, store
 
Storage place     zang  藏 X809 (storing place) ßגנז  GaNaZ, to store,   גניזה            GiNeeYZaH,  king's treasury (Esther  3:9).  -- see JANUARY 
 
Strong   zhuang   壯 (壮)  X863  M213 N.   חזק  [K]HaZahQ, strong.  Exodus 19:19
 -- see HAS
 
Style    zhuan  篆 X862, a particular manner of calligraphy  זן  ZahN, a particular      sort or kind. II Chronicles 16:14

Sum   1. zong     X873, to sum up  2. zong  總 (縂 ,总)  X874, to put together,        sum up M132 S-F  S-G  S-N   סכום (Aramaic)  $'KOOM, amount, from  סך           $ahKH, , thought to be from a Syriac word indicating the end, as in the end          figure of a calculation.  This would make zong a N., S-F  S-G.
 
Suck,  see 'Draw In' above
 
Sun    ri 日 X556   Ra the Egyprian sun god and ultimately   ß אור OWR, light 
          The Finnish sun is aurinko.   -- see AURA
 
Sundry, miscellaneous   za  雜(杂) X 805    איזה AYZeH, any, some.
           – see THAT and This below

Sunrise  chen    X73 S-N  חמה  K[H]aMaH, sun  -- see CALM               
G.C.:  Latin cauma  is the heat of the sun; Qin, is the Maya sun; gunes is the Turkish sun.
 
 
Surface    Piἀn片  X503,  a flat, thin piece, used for the surface of water or larger
           stretches of things (crops) – a פנה  PaNeH,(singular) face or panel.
           See PANE   G.C.:  Finnish 'surface' is pinta. In Thai, a แผ่น p̄hæ̀n is
            a sheet, a plate, a formal appearance.    
 
 
Sweat, to moisten with sweat… or tears  zhan   沾(霑) X818  N.  זעה Zay[A]H,          sweat   -- See 'SEA'
Sweet     tian  甜 X 643 ß S-N   מתק  MaToaQ, sweet  -- see MUSK
           See 'pleasant, sweet' above

Sword    jian   劍(剑,劒) X301    חנית K[H]aNeeYT,  lance or dagger
          – see CENTER
 
Tall -- see High
 
Tender     rou,  柔 X 558  tender;  rong  young, fine,  רך  RuKH, soft,   tender (used    to describe young children)    --  see WEAK 
 
Test -- see Try
 
Therefore, hence    yuán 爰 X 795  יען Y'[A]hN,  because (Genesis 22:16)

This  ci 此X95, zi 兹 X869, 870, also shi  是 X596   זה   ZeH, ZoaTH.  See THAT

 
Time   shi 時 (时) X 590,4,  Cantonese sih gaan 時間 (间)  
        (time, season) and falling accent shi  世X593,4 (age, era) 
         1. שעה    SHa'GHaH,      hour, time,   era  X 590, time,  season;  
         2.  ß  עת   [A]i(S), time, era 
                   -- see  Season above   and  ETERNAL and SUN
                   G.C.: Japanese itsu, time; Polish czas, time, term; Samoan tau, season.
                    -- See Generation   
 
Tinder-wood, later a matchstick for fire   chái   柴  ß   S-F עץ [A]iTS, wooden
        stick (perhaps influenced by   ß   אש  AiSH, fire) – see STICK
        G.C.: The Arabic stick is asa. Cantonese (Hong Kong) reverses the           Edenic vowel-fricative to sūe (tree). 
             
 
Tired     pi  疲 X501 and bei  憊(惫) X27  S-B   ßעיף  [A]YePH, tired  –Genesis           25:29.  Dakota (Amer. Indian)  ayuba (weary, sleepy).  Weak or faint in   Japanese is           yowai  弱い  -- see IOWA

To (preposition)  dui  對 (对) X148  S-D עד  [A]hD, to, until --  see AT

Together,  same , unified tong  同(仝)  X649, 651(98)  ß N.  S-G  S-D    יחד     YaKHahD,  together, in unison, united [JUSTAPOSE] , see 'identify' and         'unite'
 
Top (first, north) 'north'is shuờfēngX609; it also can be broken down to a 'top' pointer, as shuờ X609 means the 'first' (top), and feng means 'wind' X176, and 'wind' means direction – see פ-נP-N pointers  at POINT.   צוף   TSOOF means on top, as in north and top as first, like 'top of the morning' – see TOP.
 
Touch, offend ying  攖 (撄)   X773 נגע  NaG[A]h, to touch, strike; נגיעה  NiGeeY[A]H, touch, contact.   See NICK
 
Tree    1. zhu X854 tree trunk, plant stem, zhū 855 plant name, trunk of tree, stem of plant, X856 evergreen tree, wood stake, zhú  X856 plant name (herb, flower), bamboo, zhừ X859 ramie plant for cloth   2. shu 樹(树) X 604, bamboo weapon 
       殳 X 600  3. zhu  X857 lean on a stick   ß  S-F  עץ   [A]iTS, tree, wood.
         G.C.:  Cantonese sūe (tree).  Hindi शाखा śākhā (wood) reflects how most
         languages that reverse Ayin-Tsadi favor the guttural Ayin.    -- see STICK
 
True       zhen  真 X 830    ß   S-F, S-N  אמת  EMe(S), true 
          -- see 'Etymology,'  See Truly          below and Honest above

Truly      duan  端 X 145, also dan X112   ß   אמת EMeT, true -- see above;
              duan    also means Proper,  דין   DeeYN, law   -- see DEAN  
 
Try, test, examine  shen  審(审) X584  to bring to trial,  examine, investigate   ß                S-F נסה  Nah$ayH,  to prove, test --  I Kings 10:1  [SIGN]
 
Turn    fan  翻 X 163,4   S-B  פנה   PaNaH, to turn to -- see FAN

Twin      shuang 雙 (双) X 607  S-F, S-N תאום  (S)'OWM, twin.  See   TEAM

Twine – see Wind below
 
Two (twosome, pair, couple, couplet, divided into two)    dui 對(对)  X148 דו    DOO           (Aramaic) two  -- see DUO

Upright    kan, kang  伉 X349  כנה   KaiN, upright. See CANE
 
Unicorn    lin  麟 (麐) X407 S-L S-N       ראם  R'AiM  (Numbers 23:22; later         translators want this to mean a horned animal that still exists)   – see  RAM

Urn    1. beng  甏 X31  2. weng  瓮 X680   see other vessels from Pey-Noon (panzi    is a dish,  Pen  盆 X497 is a bain, pot or PAN) פנום PiNeeYM, within (also    see pearl)  -- see PENETRATE.
 
Vapor – see Fog
 
Vibrate (in the wind) zhan 颭 (飐) X819  זע Z[A]h, tremble, shake, agitate
          – see SHAKE

Walking stick     qiong  筇 X 540   קנה  QaNeH, reed, stem; כנה KaiN, upright    post.  See  CANE

Warm (by fire),  1. hong 烘 X249   2. chong  沖(冲) X82 to pour boiling water חם            K[H]ahM,   heat -- see CALM
          G.C.: Basque okin  =  bake; Maidu (Calif. Indian) hom = to boil
 
Wave  làng   X379 – see GALE
 
Water  shuĭ    X608  שקה  SHaQaH,   , to water  --   see Pour Water above,
           and  see SOAK
           G.C. in Amerind: chiikaato drink (Arikara); ish-ko to drink (Choctaw);
           chace, wet    (Maya: Kuche)
;
 
Water source, fountainhead   yuan 源 X796 ; also yuan X795  עין  means original     [A]YiN,  water source, spring . – see ORIGIN
 
Way, fashion, pattern   fang 方 X167  אפן  OaPHeN,  way, style, manner –
          Prov.25:11

We, my, our      (pro.)  an  俺 X 6   ß אנו  ANOO, we or 3rd person plural suffix.     NOO  --  see ME

Weak     ruo  弱 X563   רך  RahKH, weak, tender -- see WEAK 
 
Weapons, arms zhang 仗 X823   זין ZaYiN, weapons, armaments  (not in the    Hebrew Bible, but in Aramaic-Syriac. Related to the dagger-like letter          Zayin.)
 
Weigh  cheng (稱)称 X75 N. שקל SHaQeL, to weigh – see SCALE

What?  ma  嗎 X432 מה  MaH, what?    -- see MANNA
 
White, undyed      su 素 X 616 S-F  זח Za[K]H, pure, clear, bright ;    צחור
          TSa[K]HoaR, white (Judges 5:10).  See 'HOARY'
          G.C.:   Zac = white in Maya. 
 
Win, triumph   sheng  勝 (胜) X 587  S-F, S-G M213    נצח NeTSaKH,  win;
          G.C. of winning:  thang          – Viet.; usinde –Swahili; nike –Greek
 
Wind or twine around, as with a turban  chan  X66  צנף  TSaNahF, to wind
       or wrap around, as with a turban [George Shen]   See 'Stephane'
 
Wing, side, aspect; border  xiang  廂 (厢)  X703,4  ß  N. קצה QaTSaH    (extremity, border).  – See COAST
 
Wine, ferment    yun  醖(酝)  X802 יין   YaYiN, wine  – see VINE
 
Wolf    lang 狼 X380  ß N, drop end-Bhet כלב   KeLe(V), canine  -- see LOBO
           G.C.: Samoanallqu; Quechua: dog allqu
 
 
Woody stem, branch, twig   zhi  枝 X840  ß  עץ  [A]yTS, wood, tree  --
          see UNDERSTAND

Woods , forest    lin 林 X 407, Canton. lum  林  אילן     EeYLaN, shade tree 
           - see ELM  G.C.: male, mil.ai, forest (Dravidian:Tu., Ta.)
 
Wool or felt, thick cloth made from fur  zhan 氈 (毡,氊) X819  צמר  S-N  TSeMeR,    wool  -- see SUMAC

Word, character for recording speech    zi 字 X873 ß S-F אות    OaS(S), letter;
          -- see OATH.  G.C.:  Japanese aizu         (sign).
 
Yes   shi 
 
Young plant or animal.  See Infant above.    'Young,' … inexperienced, delicate    nen 嫩 X476 <  נין  NeeYN, grandson,         descendent -- see 'NINO
 
AFTERWORD:  It is still not known if Chinese single-syllable roots (with a single graphic) can combine as do Edenic sub-roots.  If Chinese has dropped root consonants before its writing system developed, Edenicists must limit links to only the longer, similar words in more conservative, rural Asian languages like Mon-Khmer.  Below is an example of George Shen attempting to compare single-syllable sub-roots of Chinese and Edenic:
 
Edenic  גדול GaDOAL (large) may also be divided into  ub-roots 1. Ga and 2. DoaL.
The first syllable, Ga, may echo jừ 巨 X338  meaning huge. The Cantonese is pronounced Gui.
 The Chinese word for big is  da 大 X 106. The Shanghai dialect pronounces this as Doe, much like the second syllable of GaDoa(L).
So, 巨大 together would emphasize largeness: גדול GaDOAL. (An end-liquid would not be pronounced.)
D + G is combined in dàgē  X106, eldest sibling,  a reversed GaD(oaL), the biggest child = the oldest.  
 

 

 

 

 
 
 CHINESE 中文 (Mandarin) – EDENIC  
[George Shen  and Kinneret Pau assisted with the Chinese.  Fernando Aedo  (Bantu, Dravidian, Egyptian, Mayan) and Regina Werling helped provide global cognates. (Key to dialect abbreviations on request).   Comments to project leader Isaac: mozeson@yahoo.com]   

Introduction: The skeptic will dismiss sound and sense similarities between 'unrelated languages' as coincidence. Twenty of these are allowed to exist, they say, just by mathematical chance. Therefore, much more than 20 links from Chinese to Edenic (Proto-Semitic, as documented in the Hebrew Bible) are presented below. Consider the following 'coincidence,' and figure the mathematical odds: Chinese yan 眼= eye, and yuan 源= water source. In Ancient Hebrew, these are both Ayin-Yod-Noon,  עין   [A]YiN.
 
The logical, mathematical weight of the Genesis 11 thesis (merely documented by us in Edenics) rests in meaning, NOT mere sound. There are 30,000 different meanings that a word can have. Only once a common theme is seen can one look for a possible correspondence in sound.  Chinese Westernized spellings must be considered as merely vague approximations of actual pronunciation. Alphabetizing by transliteration is problematic; the list is arranged by gloss or meaning.
                                                    
Most Chinese words do not have two consonants, greatly reducing the size of this comparison. Letters have been dropped and transformed into tones.  Even though a Resh/R is most likely to be dropped, this list does not include, for example,  shi X588 verse from   שירהSHeeRaH, poetry. Even when considering the available two-consonant words, a remarkably high percentage of correspondence is seen.

Chinese pictographs and definitions are from the Xinhua dictionary (X + page number).
Page numbers will vary slightly depending on the edition (a few years apart).
Letter Shift Codes:  Human words have only 7 anatomic sounds, as all music is from 7 notes.  All vowels are interchangeable, no letter shifts need be indicated.
S-B = bilabial shift [interchangeable lip letters: B, F, V, W]
S-F = fricative shift,[interchangeable whistling letters: Soft C, S, TS, X]
S-G = guttural shift [interchangeable throat letters: Hard C, G, K, Q]
S-D = dental shift [interchangeable tooth letters: D, T, TS]
S-L = liquid shift [interchangeable tongue letters: L, R]
S-N = nasal shift  [interchangeable nose letter: M, N]
M = metathesis (root letters switch places. For example, an M213 metathesis is French blanc (white) coming from the second, first and third letters of Edenic LaBHaN (white).
ß = reverse the (root letters of) the Edenic word   
N  Nasalize the word with an added N or M 

See 'XYZ' is the Edenics dictionary entry to find all Biblical citations, sub-roots, engineered synonyms and antonyms, and more Semitic and world cognates.

Key to romanized Hebrew Aleph-Bet:
Vowels in lower case. Root letters in Upper Case with [brackets] around unpronounced letters or non-historic ones in the derivative language.  5 Hebrew letters have end-forms.

Aleph א = A or any Upper Case VOWEL, Bet ב  = B, Bhet = BH or (V), Gimel   ג= G,
Dalet = ד  D, Hey   ה= H, Vav  ו = V, OO or OA, Zayin ז  = Z,
Het   ח= [K]H or K[H], Tetט   = DT, Yod   י = Y, Kahf כ,ך  K, Khaf = KH, Lamed   ל= L, Mem מ,ם  = M, Noon נ  = N, Samekh    ס = $, Ayin   ע = bracketed UPPER CASE [VOWEL] or GH, Pey פ,ף   = P,  Phey = PH or F,
Zaddi   צ,ץ = TS (always read ST in European), Koof    ק = Q,
Raish  ר = R or WR, Shin   ש = SH, Sin = S, Tahf    ת = T, TH, or (S)

ORDER OF ENTRY:  Meaning      Chinese  pronunciation  traditional pictograph word  (simplified form when available)    page in Xinhua dictionary   guide to shifts, etc.    Edenic ultimate source in Hebrew, then transliteration    meaning of the Edenic   entry in e-word CD dictionary and edenics.net searchable wordbase.
 If no entry exists, a Biblical citation is added.
G.C. = sample of closer global cognates. 

Across    lan  欄(栏) X377   ß S-N מול  MOOL, opposite, facing --  see   'MOLE.' 
        G.C. : Latin moles is a dam, mole, or wall-like structure;
        Lamba is to wade across (Bantu:Mambwe).
 
Age, duration of years   ling 齢 X409   ß  N.  גיל  GeeYL, age, number of years
       (Daniel 1:10).  G.C.:  jala, time  (Mayan: Chol/PNT);    kal,  age, long period
        of time, eternity  (Mon-Khmer:  Khmeric Branch)
 
Agree, consent    ken 肯 X358  כן  KaiN, yes, agree, affirm; kan   X348 can --         see  ACUMEN.    See Yes below.
        G.C: Korean  chin =  pro ; Can-o, yes (Mayan: Ixil). ß A_ngo, yes (Dravidian:Kui); Kon, agree (Bantu: Nkim).

Alive    chi  持 X79 live on; S-G חי  [K]HaiY 氣(气), life [this is also the word      for breath: pronounced hei in Cantonese and qi in Mandarin]
        – see HEYDAY.
       G.C.: Ices, life (Mayan: Kanjobal); iq. Breath (Mayan: Chicomuceltec)
 
Announce   sheng 聲(声) X586  S-N  שמע  SHeeMaGH,  聲 (声)聞 'sound hear'        announce.  See Reputation below.  --  see SOUND
       G.C.: Shum = noise (Russian)  sanna_ na, to resound (Dravidian: H)
 
Angry  1. [the emotion]  chen  嗔 S-N  חמה   K[H]aiMaH, wrath  -- see AMITY        G.C.:  ß mich', angry (Mayan: Ch'ol);-kemena, to get  furious (Bantu: Lozi)
       2. fu 怫 X181 (looking angry, glowering) ßאף   AhF. flaring nostrils in anger      Genesis 27:45.  See OPEN
 
Answer , respond  ying 應 (应)  X776  S-G ענה   [A]NaH or  ß GHaNaH, to   answer Ezekiel 14:4   G.C.: Japanese han'no, response.
 
 
Anticipation   nia  謔 X478  added to the end of a sentence, just like נא  NAh, in        phrases like קום נא   QOOM NAh, get up, I pray  (or now) in  Genesis         27:19
        G.C.: \Norwegian na (now); Japanese ima (now);  Danish, Dutch and
        Hittite nu (now).
 
Arrow  Shi  矢 X592 ß חץ [K]HaiTS , arrow – see HASTATE
         G.C.: Latin sagitta (arrow); Haetat is arrow for the Coeur d'Alene
          Indians of British Columbia.
 
Awake  wừ    X687 (עור)   ער [E]R, awake  -- see ORIENTATION
           The Resh/R renders W or WR, as see, at WORM and WRONG.
           G.C.:  Greek egeirein (to awaken) is from the guttural Ayin/GH.
 
Baby    ying 嬰 X774  S-G  ינק  YoNaiQ, suckling infant –  see YOUNG
       G.C.: Un.n.uka, to suck (Dravidian: Ma.), ionga, suck (Bantu: Kiseri.unn)
        See Infant below

Bake    1. bei 焙 X27  ß S-B אפה  APHaH (bake – Genesis 40:5), 2.  pao 炮   X495,  a BAKING, roasting and cooking term ß אפה  APHaH (bake)
        -- see OVEN
        G.C.: 'oop', to toast (Mayan: Lacandon); Akkadian epü  is to bake;
        Polish piec (to bake);  Thai ohp means to bake.

Balanced, honest, middle, upright, straight  -  ting 挺[straight] X649 
       ß   אמת   EMeT, אמתי AMeeTeeY, true;  אמצע EMTSaGH, middle.
       See True below, and  see ETYMOLOGY.
       G.C. tinna, straight, direct (Dravidian: Te.)
 
Basket – see Bin

Bath    mu 沐 X466   מיא  MaYA, water (Aram.),  מים MaYiM, waters
       - see MIAMI  G.C.: 'uya'-min,wave of water (Mayan: Lacandon); Egyptian      mw, water; oma, spring of Water (Bantu: Sonjo)
 
Beard      mang 駹 X440   מנא   MeeNAh, hair (Syriac)  -- see MANE
       G.C.:  man.o_ma.ni, Man without beard or moustache (Dravidian: Ku.)
 
Bed  chuang 床   X90, stand (for a musical instrument),  K[H]ahN , KaNaH, base, post (as laver)
 
Between areas or parties bian  邊(边) X38  בין BaYN, between Genesis 49:10
       -- see BONE UP

Beautiful   1. wan  婉 X667   ß   2. yan  X742  נאוה  Na'AVaH or Na'WaH,    comely (Songs 1:5)   --See BONNY 
          G.C.: Japanese bijin  is pretty; ban, pretty (Mayan:Aguacatec);
          bwina, beautiful (Bantu: Manda).

Beautiful, handsome   漂 piao X506  ß  יפה  YaPHeH , beautiful 
          -- see BEAUTY    G.C.: In Korean yeppun is pretty.
 
Beautiful (woman) 媛   yuan X 797, x799   ß    1) נוי  NOAY, beauty… from נאה   
    Na'Eh, comely ; 2)  נאוה   Na'aVaH, comely  -- see BONNY'
    G.C.:  Japanese bijin  is pretty; Polish  nowy is new.
 
Belly   fu X188  ,  also: woman  קבה Qai[V]aH is a stomach, womb
       – see CAVITY
       G.C.: Proto-Polynesian koopuu, belly; Igbo (Nigeria)  afo,  abdomen,          stomach;           Japanese fugin is a woman.
 
Bin     dὑn   X150,  a woven bamboo grain bin      טנא   DTeNEh,  a large produce
        asket  for farmers – see TON 
       G.C.: In Ancient  Egyptian  dn' is a metalic vessel, and  dnit is a Egyptian
 
Bird, 'small birds mentioned in ancient  Chinese texts'  yan X746 鷃(鴳)
          יונה     YOANaH, pigeon (as in Temple sacrifices, the name JONAH and the
       dove of  Noah's ark).  – see PIPE
       C.G.: Mon-Khmer from Fernando Aedo:  ɟang, pigeon (Sedang:
       Bahnaric Branch);  ɟnũh,  mall bird  (Jahai: Aslian Branch );
       The second element in the following words mean 'bird' :
       Latin pipionis, Old French pijon, Italian piccione and English PIGEON
 
Blow,  shan  扇(搧)  X571ß נשם  NeSHeM is soul, breath or inhalation
          -- see ANIMUS.   
       G.C.: .  Afrikaans 'breath'is asem. 'Lung' is somwa  in Uto-Aztecan;
        sm in  Ancient Egyptian. In Mon-Khmer (Cambodia region) soan
        means soul, breath of life. (Sre [Koho]: Bahnaric Branch).  [FA]
        Asún, n. wind (Mayan: Jacaltec/PNT)  [FA]
 
Boat, ship 1.  sampam or san-pan,  X571; 2.  船舶 chuánbó means a ship;
        the Xinhua dictionary limits this to chuán  X89 (but fricative-bilabial-nasal is still available,
        since a U often replaces a bilabial).  N, S-N    ספנה $PHeeNaH, boat;
       S-F   צף    TSahF,   to float --    ee 'SHIP'    
        G.C. Indo-European skipam (ship); German Schiff is a ship.                   
  
Boil, pour boiling water on   1. chong  沖(冲) X82  and  2. cuān X99, and
         3. guan 涫 X225  1. S-N   2. S-N   S-G    חם   K[H]ahM, heat– see AMITY
       See Warm entry below.
       G.C.: Ghamma, heat (Dravidian: Pali); 'Humid' in Thai is cheun; hom is boil (Maidu Indians of California ). Maq'an, warm, hot (Mayan: Sacapultec/PNT).
 
Bone,    zhong  中  X849 (backbone, middle finger, noontime ). These Chinese definitions  show us that the bone is the middle and strength of the thing, and   they help us get past the mistranslation of   עצם היום הזה  , [E]TSeM HaYoaM    HaZeH 'that selfsame day' (KJV JPS)  עצם [E]TSeM means 'bone,' and the         translators could not understand 'the bone of the day.' This is when Noah         entered the ark (Genesis 7:13). The same phrase is used and mistranslated        when           the Israelites leave Egypt (Exodus 12:41). Noah defied the skeptics,     and the slaves defied their imperial masters in the 'bone of the day' –that is,    at high   noon, with maximum visibility, in the middle or backbone of the day.                עצם[O]aTSeM means might.  The bone of the thing is its ESSENCE.
       See OSTEOMA.  Greek osteon is a bone.  The  אמצע EMTS[A] (middle) or       backbone of a ship is the MAST. The Chinese reversed. Fernando Aedo adds
       from Mon-Khmer:  kasìang, bone (Halang: Bahnaric Branch);  katiing, bone
       (Alak: Bahnaric Branch); sɨang¹, bone (Mương [Hoa Binh]: Vietic Branch).
 
 
Border, edge    xiang  鑲 (镶)  X 704  ß S-G S-F   N  קץ QaiTS, extremity – see COAST
         G.C. Japanese sakai (border, boundary); German Kuste (shore).
 
Bottle  ping     X508  S-G   N פך   PahKH, flask, vial   -- see BEAKER
        G.C.: Greek bikos is a wine jar.
 
Brain       nao  腦(脑) X474 S-N  מוח  MoaWa[K]H, brains, marrow
        --  ee MARROW 
       G.C.:  Mwongo, marrow (Bantu: Venda); ongo, brain     (Bantu: Sukuma) ;         amm, brain (Egyptian)
 
Brightness, light, glory    guang  光 X 226   M213   S-G    נגהNoaGaH means to        glow, shine, be bright, noun of brightness and splendor.     -- see IGNITION |          G.C.: c'in, sun, day, celebrating of light (Maya: Ch'ol), ngiãngiã, bright,       brilliant (Bantu: Bobangi). See below.
 
Bright, of the sun, of male sexuality   yang  陽(阳)  X748  M213   נגהNoaGaH means  hining and bright, and Venus the sexual planet and force.
        --  see IGNITION   
 G.C.: Reverse for G-N 'fire' words, including Hindi agni from Sanskrit agnih,  Latin ignis, and  Guni  (Malay: Javanese).   Igink is the Eskimo hearth.
 
 
Brother    ge 哥 X201  older brother ß S-G  אח AKH See EACH.
       G.C.: ucú, older brother ; uqtaq, brother and ucau, younger brother (Mayan:        Chicomuceltec); akaka, older brother (Bantu: Ngindo); Mongolian akh  is a          brother. אח  AK[H], brother, becomes kak (brother) in Kurdish. Ocs  is a      (younger) brother in Hungarian.   In Zuni, an Amerind isolate of New Mexico,      kaka is a mother's brother.
 
Bubble     pao 泡 X495  S-B  בעבוע    B[A]BOO[A], bubble – the Vowel-Bilabial is        reduplicated  --– see BUBBLE     
       G.C.: -fufula ~, to boil over, to froth, to bubble up           (Bantu: Lozi );  Japan.   awa,        bubble

Build   bian  (编)  X38 (complete a material, fabricate) בנה  BoNeH, build.    
       -- see BONE 
       G.C.:  baanu, make, do (Mayan: Kekchi);  bana_na, to make (Dravidian: H.)        ABiNYaN (building) is made with ABHaNiM  (stones) or LiBHaiNiM       (bricks) or BEAMS.
 
Burn,  1. shao  焼(烧)X576  2.  zhuo X866, burn, scorch   ß  אש AiSH
         -- see ASIA
       G.C.:. Su is fire in Basque; In Japan, another 'land of the rising sun,' asa is        morning. The oldest root for EAST is based on Sanskrit ushas, dawn. The T in      EAST simply means towards the fiery dawn (in the east).
 
 
 
Bury     bian  窆  X38  1. to conceal underground and 2. a storage BIN to         keep produce. The Edenic ilabial-nasal sub-root is strongly          established by three  פ-ן Pey-Noon words of similar meaning, with three fricatives leading them.  1. ספן   $aFaN (covered, secured,          hidden         - Deuteronomy 33:21),  2.  צפון TSaPHOON (hidden, closeted away –        Exodus 2:2), and 3.שפן   SHaPHaN is to hide as buried        treasure (Deuteronomy 33:19). This word also means the shy, hidden         hyrax or rock badger of this name (Leviticus 11:5). Chinese bian          X37 also means a hidden animal, the bat which only appears at dusk.      A fourth covering, bian  弁X39, means a cap worn by men.
       The e-word entry with all this is STEPHANE, which covers the     turban. FA's cognates incl. cappan, cover (Dravidian: P.) and afn, to          cover (Egyptian).
 
Buttocks , (bottom)  臀  tun X660   ß  S-N   מטה  MaDTaH, down, below
        – see MAT
       G.C.: not.ti, buttocks (Dravidian: Ka.); an.d.u, buttocks or the bottom of a          vessel        (Dravidian: Ka.); mataà-ula, buttocks (Bantu: Denya)

Cake   gao   X200 ß עוגה [O]oGaH  small cake – see CAKE
       G.C.:  The Malay kuih is another rare cookie without the harsh Ayin that   provides the double-guttural sound.
 
Canopy, awning  peng 棚 X498   ß כנף  KaNahPH, wingspread, protective wing
       -- see    CANOPY.    
       G.C.: Also reverse pannakam, leaf-cover of a palanquin, awning,  boat      cover (Dravidian: Ma.) and bangou, wing (Bantu: Grassfields         Ortuno        1995), but not Khambh, wing, feather (Dravidian: P.) or  kamapura, wing    (Bambara -- Mali). If the G in peng 棚 proves to be unhistoric, this         'covering' word   belongs with the bilabial-nasals at the Bury entry above.
 
Case, storage box   xiang  箱  X704  1.  S-G S-F שק   SahQ, bag, container      2.  ß S-G
       S-F   N.  Kee$ooY, covering – see 'SACK,' ENCASE
         G.C.:  Dutch zak, box; German Schmuckkassette, jewlery box
 
Center, midpointzhōng X849 ß   S-N  אמצע  EMTS[A]h or M213   S-N   EMTS'GHah, middle   -- see Middle below and see MEZZANINE
 
Certainly (indicating the certainty of a guess)  dei    X121  דע  DAh ! know!
        G.C. Russian da, yes.
 
Change, transform   shan 嬗 X574   שנה  SHaNaH, to change . To shift  is  zhuan       轉 (转) X861,2   S-F  שנה SHaNaH .   Edenic has the strange, inhuman trait         of sometimes having a word mean the opposite of a previous definition.  Just        as שנה SHaNaH means to repeat the same thing (NOT to change),  shan       鱔 X573,4  means 'copy.'  Similarly, Chinese san 三 X565 means   repeatedly, again and again.  Again and yet again infers thrice, not just twice.        This is why   san means number three.  – see CHANGE   Sahm is 'to     repeat' in Thai.
 
Child  (A)  nan  男 X471,2 and 囡 nan kid X472   נין    NeeYN, descendant, great-       grandchild -- see 'El NINO' 
       G.C.:  Malay niana is a son, and Spanish nino/nina is a  male/female child .         Unin is a son or daughter (Mayan: Tojolabal).  Nanua is a child           (Dravidian: Mth.)   Nunu is offspring (Bantu: Mabia).
 
Child (B)  er 兒(儿)   X158   עולל   [O]WLeL, child, 'infant' in Lamentations           2:11.  -see GIRL   see Child (A) above and Infant below
        G.C.: baby is haurra in Basque.
 
Chimney  cỏng    X96   קנה  QaNeH, windpipe, shaft
 
Choke    qiang  嗆 (呛) X528; gḝng X207  S-G  חנק  K[H]eNeQ, to strangle. -- see HANG
       G.C.: Greek anchien and Latin ango mean to         choke;  Joc'an is to hang
       (Mayan: Tzotzil) ; two more chokers are  -niga (Bantu: Nyamwezi) and
        khama (Bantu: Ndebele).
 
Colorful, gorgeous, brightly-colored  yan 艶(艳)  X746   NOAY, ornament, beauty. This post-Biblical word is from  נאה N Ah'eH  (in Aramaic-Syriac)
       and נוה NaVaH (Exodus 15:2), which  also mean beauty and adornment.
       -- see BONNY
 
Clamping or biting down 1. qian 鉗 X526 ,  2. ken  X357 is to gnaw or nibble
       1. טחן   DTaK(H)aN (to mill, grind). 2.  כנה   KeeNaH, the louse or biting bug
    -- see GNAW              
G.C.:  FA has 30 forms of טחן  DTaK(H)aN, but they all keep the dental. Even if it moves as it does in Sanskrit kan.d, to pound. More than favoring   the biting gnat, the Chinese is again tuned into Edenic sub-roots.  The theoretical Indo-European root of GNAW (to bite down) , GNAT(a biting insect) and GNASH (to grind the teeth) does resemble the Chinese:  ghen (to gnaw).

Class, category, family, branch    men  們(们) X446  מין  MeeYN, species, kind,          sect  -- see MINISTER  G.C.:  In-am is a class, group, kind, species, race,        tribe or herd  (Dravidian: Ta.). Similar reversal of M-N in another Dravidian       language of Southern India.  Namna is a kind in Swahili.  A category stands   alone. Like Greek monos (alone), and is a smaller part of the larger whole.       Thus Russian men'she is less, from  מן  MeeN, from. MINI and  NAME are    also good entries when investigating why men  們 means what it does.
 
 
Clear, evident, conspicuous  zhang X821,2   < N. זך, זכך  ZahKH
         and ZaKHahKH,   clear, pure… bright, transparent. 
 G.C.:  S^c-  is clean, white   (Mayan: Ch'ol).    Another nasalized (extra N)
 זך   ZahKH is -senguluka, to  become or be clear (Bantu: Mambwe). A reversed form is Japanese kaise,  clear weather.
 
Clothes  fu   X162   < ß S-B S-G  חבא  [K]HaBAy, to conceal  -- see COVER
       G.C.:  Hbs is garment, clothes, clothing, cloth and covering (Egyptian) . Kapra    is cloth in Hindi.  Hawaiian reverses their guttural-bilabial 'curtain' word to        paku.
 
Cloud yun 雲(云 )  X801   ענן  [A]NahN, cloud. Genesis 4:19.  – see YEN
       G.C.:  Japanese Kumo (cloud) and French nuage (cloud) reverse the ע-ן  
Ayin-Noon KH-N (M) or GN) with the guttural ע Ayin/GN. The soft,    vowelized   ע Ayin/[A] may be behind NUANCE (from a cloud word).
 
 Club, cudgel, scepter    ting 梃 X649  ß N.  חטר  K[H]oDTeR, branch, stick, rod     (of the kingly tribe of Judah)  -- see 'ROD'
       G.C.:  There are scores of guttural-dental-(and sometimes) liquid 'club'     words.        Only a few are nasalized and reversed like the Chinese. They include:         t.inkara, stick (Sanskrit) and  tonga, heavy stick, cudgel (Bantu: Sangu).

Coin,   qian  X525  is money or coin    קנה  QoNeH, to purchase   
       -- see COIN 
       G.C.:  To buy in Japanese is konyo (suru). Japanese words for gold are kin and   ogen.  Taino gold is caona.
 
Cold, cool   1.  lĕng, cold  X387  2.  liáng 涼 X399, cold   3. líng  泠 X409,
        cool <  ß N.  S-G S-L קר QahR --   ee  'CRYOGENESIS'    
       G.C.:   Ing'aala is cold (Bantu: Bena);  uriuku is cold (Bantu: Nyaturuwil).
         Rumanian 'cold' reverses to rece.
 
 Collapse, see Down below
 
Concerning   gan 干  X193  ß  נוגע NOAGay[A]h, from the Biblical word for       touching or reaching, as in gan  趕(赶)X195 to try to catch. – see NICK
 
Construct, build  zhu  ()  X860   עשה  [A]SayH  ee USE
 
Correct   kan  勘 X348 תקן  TaQeN, to correct --  see 'TECHNOLOGY'
 
Couple – see Two below
 
Cover – see Bury and Canopy above

Covered wagon    zi  輜 (辎) X870  צב  TSahBH, covered wagon (Numbers 7:3)
       -- see    TOP.  An end-Bhet is most likely to go silent or be dropped.
 
Crack, crevice, fissure, slit    feng 縫 X179  <  1. N.  בקיע BiQeeY[A]h,
       crack or fissure,  2. ß  N. S-B   גב  GaiBH, trench   -- see GAP
       3. M312 S-B S-G  נקב NeQeBH, perforation hole; נקבה  NiQaiBHaH,
       female  -- see CAVITY,  see Hole below.
       G.C.:  Dravidian has pakku, fracture, break, crack, (Ta.) and pokkai, little hole,    crack (Ta.).  Old Norse gapa  is to yawn, gape.
 
Crown, top of the head   dǐng  (頂) 顶 X135  ß   N.  קדקוד QahDQOAD -- see HEAD
 
Curry favor with chăn X67   יחן  YooK[H]aN, to find favor  (Proverbs 21:10);
      chăn X67 (different pictographs) also means 'smiling' and asking someone for forgiveness and Taoist repentance, short for the Sanskrit chanma.   K[H]aiN is grace, with extensions meaning to show mercy or to ask for mercy.
      G.C.  German gnade is grace, mercy, favor.
 
 Deer    lu 鹿  X422  ß  איל  AhYiL is a stag, hart or gazelle. -- see ELK
        The  deer-like ELAND is an official cognate.
 
Deer-like animal   zhu   X857  צבי  TS(V)eeY – see BEAST

Defend    gan  干 X193   הגן  HaGeN, to defend -- see JANUARY
       and Guard and Shield below
       G.C. :  a_nga, to intercept, prevention, defence (Dravidian: Kui)
 
Descendant  si X611  צאצא , TSETSAh, offspring (lit., those who 'go out' from you)   Offspring   zi   X870  sons and daughters   צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring   – see  EXIT   and  Descendant above
          G.C.:  The Indo-European reconstructed root for 'son' is seue
           (to give birth).  Uzazi is birth in Swahili.

Differentiate , clarify right from wrong  1. bian 辯X40 בינה ,  2. bian 編 X 37, the editing, deciding between texts and 3.  bian 辨  X40 becoming different
       1. בין  BaiYN,  understanding,    between  See Side by side below and 2.  בינה         BeeYNaH,  discrimination  -- see BONE UP 
       G.C.: bayina , between (Bantu: Emakhua)
 
Dike (wall) dàng  X116 , wall for water control   N  דייק    DaYYeQ andדיק
       DaYaiQ,   iege-wall, bulwark or rampart. See DIKE.
        G.C.  Old French digue is a dike; a German dike is a Deich.
 
Direction -- see POINT
 
Discuss, talk over  1. shang   X573 and  2. shuō( discuss, explain, say, speak)
        X609   1.  N. S-G  S-F, 2. S-G     שיח  SeeYaK[H], converse.     --  see 'SAY.'
       G.C.:  Old Norse segja looks like an M132 of שיחה   SeeYK[H]aH. The Dutch      (zeggen) and German (sagen) forms of SAY also render the ח Het as a G.

Disease     gan  疳 X 195, also guan 瘝  X223   ß   נגע  NaG[A]h, infect, plague 
         -- see INNOCENT 
       G.C.: qam, sick, gravely ill (Mayan: Ch'ol)


Dispute, contend in court  song 訟(讼)  X613 S-F  S-G  N. עשק   [A]SHahQ, contend  Genesis 26:20
 
Do, use    1. shi  使 X 592  2. zuo  (作) X882, do, work, produce  ß                              S-F  עשה   [A]SeH,   to do  -- see USE  עשה   [A]seH also means to create, so     see Make below
        G.C.: Italian usare is to use or make use of..  From עשה   GHaSeH, to do:
        khoza, to do, to do well, accomplish, be able to do (Bantu: Chewa)

Down  tun 吞 X659 is to swallow down, and tan X627 is to collapse, fall down    or to lose face.  This last meaning of the typically reversed and shifted Edenic         מטה   MaDTaH (down) helps explain in Deuteronomy 28:43 how the   Israelite citizen is sinking low metaphorically. ß  מטה  MaDTaH, down, low. 
         --  see           NETHER         
       G.C.: Related words meaning 'down' include Danish and Norwegian ned, and    Swedish nedat.
 
Draw in liquid, suck   shun X 608  ß   S-N  משה    MaSHaH, to draw out of water;
           משך  MaSHaKH,  to pull, draw, attract – see SHAG
 
 
Drive (cattle)   gan  趕 (赶) X 195  ß  נהע  NaHaG, to drive -- see NAG
          G.C.: nika_sn.o, to drive out (Dravidian: Ku.) Archaic Dutch negghe is to
          urge on.
 
Dry  gan  乾 (干) X195  ß   נגב NeGe(V), dry (adj. and the verb to dry).
        In Syriac as well. Appears in the Bible as the name for the arid southern
       region of Israel, the Negev, Genesis 13:1.  See 'SACK (dry).'
        G.C.:  Kanso is to dry up in Japanese.    Can is dry in Vietnamese.   Using the
        econd part of the Edenic   נגב NeGe(V) is Swahili kavu, dry.                             
                       
Duality,  couple, pair  dui 對(对)   X148    Aramaic דו DOO or DooW means two,       from           an Edenic word for twin beginning Tahf-Aleph-Vav/T-O-V.  See     DUO
          G.C.: Duo  is two in Latin; di is two in Greek;  In Avestan of ancient Persia
          two was  dva. 
 
Dye, dark eyebrow cosmetics from pigment   dᾲi  X108  ß דיו DYOA
          – see DYE   G.C.: Dye is deah in Anglo-Saxon.
          Greek ioeidēs is violet colored.
         
  
Each – see One below
 
Early, morning    Zǎoqí   早期    X810  שחר   SHaK[H]aR, day-break
      (Genesis 19:15)    See OBSCURE    
      G.C.  Japanese: 早期  sōki; East (the direction of sunrise) is  shahr  in Tibetan.
 
 
East, the direction of sunrise  dōng   东  X138  אדום  ADOAM, red  --- see DAWN  
 
Eel  shan 鱔 X574 and earthworm; also the  zhan 鱣 X819 , sturgeon  
        ß   נחש   Na[K]HaSH, snake  -- see SNAKE
        G.C.:SNIG is an eel in English dialect. It echoes 'snake.'  After an M123
        metahesis it is NGS, minor shifts away from  נחש  Na[K]HaSH, snake. 
        Eel, or any elongated fish, is  naʼashǫ́ʼii łóóʼ  in Navajo
 
Ethnic group, a people    min 民 X 456 < מין   MeeYN, species, a classification,
          a named subdivision … such as a country's minority eople.
           -- see MINUS.    
            G.C.:  French moins (less, fewer);  Polish mniej  (minus).   
 
Except (conj.)  chu  除 X 86  ß  אך  AKH, only, but (Genesis 7:23);  aka = but in        Hawaian.    -- see EACH  and Only below
 
 
Excrement  shἵ  X593   S-F צאה   TSeyAH  -- see EXIT
 

Eye (and see)     1. yan   眼 X 746   עין   [A]YiN or GHaYiN, eye ;
       G.C.: Cantonese ngaan (eye), gin (to see);  Middle English eyne
        – see EYE           Japanese me,  Korean noon ; also  kan 勘 X350,  read, survey,
        investigate (from עין         GHaYiN)  2.  mu   X466 ß S-N  עין [A]YiN, eye
 

Falcon    sun  隼 X 620ß  נץ  NayTS, falcon (Jer. 48:9).  Also, kite or hawk is           yuan  鳶(鸢) X794,5. The strength of the G.C. below allows one to assume that an S dropped in this second  Chinese bird of prey.  See NEST
                                 G.C.:   NIAS is a word for a fledgling hawk of unknown origin. Fernando Aedo captures the following N-T/S or T/S-N birds:   Aramaic: NaZa , hawk;          Bantu: Mabia suni, bird; Bantu: Nyamwezi isaansa, hawk; Bantu: Nyaturuwil   usenta, kite; Bantu: Venda nnzu,  large hawk or eagle; Dravidian: Si. sen,                          falcon, eagle or kite; Dravidian: A xen, falcon, hawk; Dravidian:Pali se_na,                       hawk; Dravidian: WPah  'en, kite ; Dravidian: RV. s'ye_na, hawk, falcon,                    eagle; Egyptian tnhr, hawk;  Mayan Ts'om, buzzard.
 

Fall, collapse see Down above
 
Farmland, field  tian  田 X64   אדמה  ADaMaH, land or          country
       – see    DEMOCRAT and see Field below
 
Fast, rapid  快 kuai X365 ,  Kuàisù   快速 1. קל QahL, swift, light [ACCELERATE]
           2.  חש K[H]ahSH, to make haste [HASTE]   -- see Quick below
          G.C.: Estonian kaiire, quick.  Eskimo Inupiaq suka (fast). 
          Turkish 'quick' is hız.
 
Father   ba 爸 X13 and fu 父 X186  ß אב ABH, father  – see Grandfather below.
        ee ABBOT 
        G.C.: Latin avus, grandfather.  Ba and bo are father or daddy in Vietnamese. 
         oː ,  father   (O'du: Khmuic Branch of Mon-Khmer)
 
Feel , sense    gan  X196  ß נגע   NaG[A]h, to touch  -- see NICK
         G.C.: In Bambara (a Hamitic language of Mali) maga means touch.
 
Field  1.  dong  垌 X 139 (in place names), 2. tian 田 X642   S-N  אדמה   ADaMaH,
        land or country  – see DEMOCRAT,  'MUD' and see Farmland above.
       G.C.:  In Bahasa Malaysia tanah, like  אדמה ADaMaH, means both dirt and         land.   In Saami, the Uralic language of Lapland, land or earth is aednan.  In          Latvian, duna is a mass of moist earth or mud.  
 
Fix   1. Ding  訂(订)  X137  revise, make corrections;   2. ding  X136, fixed, established  M132  1. תקן TaQaiN is to make straight  or repair .
         2.  תכונהT'KHOONaH means arrangement, order, structure,
        preparation. – see TECHNICAL.
       G.C.  Txukun(du) is to fix in Basque

Flat    ping 平 X508  פחוס PaK[H]OO$, flat, level.  P-K[H] root at PIT  

Flesh, meat, skin    r'ou   肉 X559 ; rang  瓤= flesh, pulp X 552  ß עור  [O]WR       or GHoWR (minus nasalized or extra N) ;  -- see  CORIUM for CARNAL          words like CARNI(VORE);  Latin caro, flesh , at CHROME 

Float – see FLY
 
Flow   lin  淋 X407 (pour...water…heavy rain… later lymph) , also  lian 漣(涟)    X397, flowing < ß  S-L נהר , to flow,   a stream  -- see INERT
 
Flute  guan  琯 X224  קנה QaNeH, hollow reed  -- see CANE
       G.C.:  The Quechua reed flute is a quena.

Fly, flying bird, hover, flutter, float   fei  飛 (飞) X 170, fu X 73; piao  漂 'float     in the air,' fu'  X181 is floating and a mayfly elsewhere. These are a reverse     
        Of  ß עף  [A]F, to fly, [O]aF or GHoaF, bird, fowl.  (with gutteral Ayin).
        See     AVIATE and UP  G.C.: Vuka = fly (Fijian), kupu = Butterfly (Malay)
 
Fog     wừ   霧 (雾) X686   ß עב [A]BH, cloud; --  see EVENING

Food   zhuan 饌 (馔) X862   זון ZOON, to feed, nourish.  Jeremiah 5:8.
 
Foresight   rui 睿(叡)  X561  ראה   R'AH , to see  -- see AURA
 
Fortune, luck    ji  吉 X283, Cantonese Gud;  גד  GaD, fortune   -- see GOOD

Full   ren  牣 X554  ß S-N  S-L    מלא  MaLAy, full.  Genesis 1:22.
 
Garden, park, courtyard, protected area  yuan (园)  X 795, 797 also pronounced juan    גן GahN, also pronounced JahN, garden, protected area                               -- See JANUARY
 
Generation    dair (Shanghai dialect showing vestigial R) 代
      דור  DOAR , generation  -- see 'DWELL,TIER'
       代  Also means age, era or period --where R not heard)
       < ß  S-D   עת    [A]iT, time,  period – see ETERNAL
         G.C.   Hungarian 'time' is  ido.
 
Give  gei  (给) X205  S-G   הב Hah(V), give !  -- see 'GIVE'
          G.C.: Hawaiian haawi means to give.

Gore  --  see Nail below.

Grace, kindness   en   X157, also yun (园) X803  חן  [K]HaiN, grace  and חנון           [K]HaNOON means kind, merciful, gracious – see KIND
           G.C.: Japanese onkei is grace and favor, and onjin is a benefactor. 
 
Grandfather (address to elderly man)     fu X185  is a term of respect for an elderly man.    
           ß אב  AhBH, father, ancestor --  see ABBOT   
            G.C.:  Latin avus, grandfather; Bpoo is the grandfather term in Thailand.
 
Grind  chong  舂 X82    טחן  DTaK[H]ahN  (grind) and נגס NahGa$ (bite) are at           GNAW  see Pulverize below. C.G.: nuku, is to chew, in Fijian.
 
Grow, develop, rise, increase   zhang 長(长) X822,3 also zhong 種 (种)
          X 851  specifically on plant growth צמח  TSeMaK[H], to grow, sprout
           -- see SUMAC G.C.: Nahuati (Aztec) tomatl gives us that tall-sprouting
        T(S)-M vegetable plant we call the TOMATO; an early Slovak tribe
         used the same Edenic word for the Old World potato: zemiak.  
 
 
Guard (visual)   kan  看 X349, and guan 觀 (观) X223  S-G עין   GHaYiN, to see
  --  see EYE 
G.C.:  In Romany (Gypsy) guttural Ayin-Noon 'eye' is acans.   Another KN eye from guttural Ayin-Noon is Telugu (from Sanskrit): kanu. See English KEN.   Japanese also has several k-a-n words that echo  עין GaYahN (to look at). These include kanran suru (to see, view) and kantoku (supervision).

Guard    (physical) 1. gan 干 X193  shield, defend;  2.  kan  看       X349  <  1.   הגן    HaGaiN, to defend  -- see 'January' 2. עין    GHaYin,  to watch --  see EYE and 'Look at' below
G.C.: c'^n, serve, guard (Mayan: Ch'ol); a_nga, to intercept, prevent, defend,  herd (Dravidian: Kui); mki, guard, protect and, the reverse, ikm, shield (Egyptian); cinga, to protect, guard, herd, ward off, parry (Bantu: Emakhua)
 
Habitual     guan 慣(惯)  X225  ß  מנהג   MiN'HahG, custom -- see NAG
       G.C.: ch^n, constantly, repeatedly, again (Mayan: Ch'ol); nica, constant     (Dravidian: OM.) ; ann, turn back, repeat, come back, , bring back           (Egyptian)'hañgi, again, once more (Bantu: Sukuma)
 
Hair, a tuft of a child's hair, or any fiber    tiao X644   חוט [K]HOODT means               thread            -- see CHAETA
 
Hand
   of human:  shǒu  手  X598
   of animal: talon, claw, paw  zhua   X860 ß  אחז  A[K]HaZ, to seize,         grasp  -- see HAS,  see Seize below
           G.C.: 'Hand' words include: Hungarian kez, Natchez (Cree/Amerind) izha.       
 
Handfuls, holding with both hands    peng 捧 X499 M312 metathesis of חפן      [K]HoaFahN, closed hand, handful -- see 'FIN'
 G.C.: c'^b, c'ab, q'ab, c'^b, c'ob is a hand, handful or numerical classifier in all Mayan dialects; kapat.i_, measure equal to a double-handful (Sanskit); bukka, handful, handful of rice (Dravidian: Pkt.); paho, handful of raw cotton (Dravidian: S.); mfungu,   a handful of something (Bantu : Mambwe);
The alleged Indo-European  'root' penkwe (five) is the given source of FINGER,  KENO, PENTA-, PUNCH, PUNJAB, and QUINTET. German funf and Sanscrit pancha are five terms.). Kurdish penc and Luri panch also mean 'five.'
 
 
Handle of a utensil    pan 鋬 X493 < חפן   [K]HoaFahN.  hand, handful
         – see 'FIN' and Handfuls above
 
Handsome, beautiful  yun 贇 (赟)  X800  נאה  NAh'eH, pretty, comely – see      BONNY
 
Hate    zeng  憎 X813,4 (Cantonese tsang)  שנאה  SaNAh, hate -- see XENOPHOBIA
            G.C.:  shima, to hate, abhor, dislike (Bantu: Kalanga),
          toyani, to hate each other (Bantu: Lozi)
 
Hawk -- see  Kite below   
 
Head    1. ding頂(顶) X136,  crown of the head; to carry with one's head. ß  N
  S-G      2. tou  頭 (头) X653 ß S-G  קדקד  QahDQoaD, crown of head
            – see HEAD      
  G.C.: taauko is head in Nepali.
            Ethiopic qadama means he preceded   (or headed for).
 
Hear -- see Listen below
   
Heat, bake or broil   kang  炕 X350 חם  K[H]aM means warm or hot
           – see          CALM
 
Help  zhu   X858   ß  עזר [O]ZeR, aid or help  -- see AUXILIARY
          G.C.: To help or support in Hittite (extinct Indo-European) is sardi
 
Hidden: as precious treasure is stored zang  藏(蔵)
          X808, as a body is buried zang  葬 X808 and the term for internal organs         zang   臟 (脏) X808  S-F  צנע TSiNGHah, verb of hiding and modesty, noun of privacy and secrecy
 
High   gao   高 X199  גוה  Ga(V)oa'aH, high  -- see HIGH 
          G.C.: ega, upwards (Dravidian: Te.); qAi, to be raised on high, uplifted
          (Egyptian).

Hill, mound, mountain  1. ling 陵  X409,  2. ling 嶺(岭) X411<  ß  N. גל GahL,        mound, hill, marker    -- see  OROLOGY
 
Hire, rent   lìn X409    ß     מחירM'[K]HeeYR, hire,  price;  מכר MeKHeR, price,
         sale
 
Hold, grasp     1.  zhi  執 (执) X841  2. zhuo 執 (执)  X866, catch or capture         ß  אחז  Ah[K]HaZ, hold, grasp -- see HAS
 
Hold in one's hand  ti 提  X638  ß S-D  יד  YahD   -- see KARATE
        G.C.:  Japanese te, hand; Nepali haat, hand.

Hole, pit  1.  kan  X348,   2. niche   kan  龕 (龛)X348 , 3.  cavity,        burrow    ku  窟 X362  1.  נקב   NeQe(V), recess, hole  2.  קב  QeBH,  subroot          in cavity, celle -- see  CAVITY  and see Crevice above

Honest , sincere    dun  惇 X149  ß   S-D  S-N  אמתי AMeeTeeY, truthful –
         see  'ETY MOLOGY'
       G.C.: tinnani, straight, straightforward, honest (Dravidian: Te.)
       mAat, truth, right-doing, righteousness (Egyptian); niti niti, truth, veracity,         sincerity (Bantu: Lyon Fang)
 
 
Hop  bèng 蹦 X31 <     N  S-G S-B    קפץQeePaiTS, to hop or leap – see HIP
 
Horse (ancient breed)     su  驌 (骕) X616  סוס  $OO$, horse -- see PEGASUS          for ma 馬(马) too.
 
I, me  yu 予/余 X789   -י -eeY suffix in past perfect is the 1st person marker
         –see   'I'
        G.C.: ist person pronouns incl. Je (French), Ya (Russian), Yo (Spanish)
 
Identify with   tong X649(98)   ß N.  S-G  S-D    יחד  YaK[H]ahD,  this further    proves that Yitro in Exodus 18:9 wasn't 'delighted' but was identifying,     was in sympathy with Israel. – see JUXTAPOSE   VaYaK[H]eD Yitro, see      'identify' above – not the mistranslation 'delighted' see 'together' and  
          'unite'
         G.C.: Cantonese yatchai is together; yhta or yhden is 'one' in Finnish.
          Ikut is to join in Indonesian. Ekataa is unity (Nepali).
 
Ignite, light   ran  燃 X551 ß נור  NOOR, light, fire -- see MINARET
G.C.:  Aramaic NOORAh (fire) and NaHoR (light); Arabic nahar, day time…when it is light;   Korean nal, day (light time);  Modern Greek ime'ra (day);  Mohawk 'dawn' : rhen.
 
Illness, ailment  ying  恙 X750   M312   נגע NeG[A]h, afflict, infect, plague  
       --see NOXIOUS  See Infection  below.
 
Inclination, slanting (physical leaning and a preference) pn X502
       פניה PiNeeYaH    (inclination), a natural extension of  פנה  PaNaH (to turn) –
       see PENCHANT
        G.C.: Korean won is to desire ; Dutch wensen is to PINE for something.
 
Infant, newborn baby  yang  嬰(婴) X773 , also yong X779, a pupa יונק 
        YOANaiQ, suckling – see YOUNG See Baby and Child A and B above.
 
Infection,  a festering carbuncle on the skin  yong癰 (痈)  M312  נגע NeG[A]h,           infection,  plague .   See NOXIOUS.  See Illness above.
          G.C.: Latin noxa (injury, hurt, damage).
 
Insufficient – see Not
 
Interiority   bian  砭 X37 perform acupuncture (PIN),  bian  窆 X38 bury פנים PiNeeYM,   interior -- see PENETRATE and POINT
          G.C.:  mba, inside (Bantu: Kibosho). The Greek name PENELOPE
          means 'needle.'  Sumerian apin is a plow

Island      yu  嶼 (屿)  X790   ß  אי  EeY, island -- see 'ISLAND'
          G.C.:  Iw, (pronounced ioo) is an island (Egyptian)
 
Judge      tuan  彖 X658    S-D  דון  DOON  to judge.   See DEAN and DEEM at           DAMN  and LAW below.     G.C.:  Dumbuo, judge (Bantu: Kibosho).   Tham is to try or judge in Vietnamese

Juice     shen X583,  zhi  汁  ß  S-F S-N     מיץ MeeYTS, juice, extract 
          -- see MOIST
          G.C.:  Sona, juice that exudes from plants (Dravidian: Te.).
          German most is fruit juice.

Kindness    ren   X553   S-N    רחם   Ra[K]HeM, to be kind – see MERCY
          G.C.:  The Finnish 'mercy' is armo.  'Kindness' words with liquid-nasal
          include French merci ('thank you').
 
Kite (hawk, bird of prey)  yuān  X795    נץ NayTS, hawk (Leviticus 11:16)
G.C.: Aramaic: NaZa , hawk; Bantu: Mabia suni, bird; Bantu: Nyamwezi isaansa, hawk; Bantu: Venda nnzu,  large hawk or eagle; Dravidian: Si. sen, falcon, eagle or kite; Dravidian: Pali se_na, hawk; Dravidian:WPah  'en, kite ; Dravidian: RV. s'ye_na, hawk, falcon, eagle.
 
Know, understand   dong 懂 X138  דע  DGHa, know (imper.). ידע  YoDayGHa, to      know  -- see IDEA  and ORTHODOX
          G.C.:  The Indo-European 'root' tong is to think.
          Ootaj, know (Mayan: Jacaltec).
 
Lacking – see Not
 
Language    yan 言 X742    ß   ניב    NeeYBH (speech, dialect)
           G.C.:  Belarusian and Ukrainian movu.
 
 
Laugh, expressed amusement   xaio    笑(咲)X710   שחוק   S' [K]HOAQ, laughter
          (also   צחוק TS'[K]HOAQ)   -- see CHUCKLE
          G.C.:  In Hindi (Dravidian)  צחק TSaK[H]aQ is an H-S which is reversed and                 nasalized: hansi is to laugh. Maya tsek means laugh.   To jest in Spanish,
          guasa, requires reversing צ-ח Tsadi-Het and dropping Koof/Q.
 
 Lay aside, store   zhừ   X859 <   אצר  ATSoaR, to store  -- see STORE  and Store
   (v.)  below)

Law (standard law), to deliberate, weigh  dian   典 X128  <דין DeeYN, law
see DEAN and DAMN
G.C.:  Tham is to try or judge in Vietnamese. Japanese  handan is a judgement; handan suru is to judge.
 
Leader, official, officer guan  X222    ß   מנהיג   MaNHeeYG, leader  
          – see NAG   See Drive above and Official below.
          G.C.: monaka , general, leader, chief (Dravidian: Te.); mungo', leading      position (Bantu: Lozi).
 
Leave, go away , escape  zou  X875   צא TSAy, to go out – see EXIT
            G.C.:    In Cantonese zou is to come out or discharge.
 
Letter     1. zi    X872, character, phonetic sign and word,  2. shu  書 (书) X600,           document  ß   אות  Oa(S), letter  Jp. aizu (sign) -- see OATH
          G.C.:  etal, sign, symbol (Mayan: Uspantec)
 
Lift     lin  拎 X406  הרים  HayReeYM, to lift  L shift) -- see RUM
           G.C. : -inula, lift up, pick up (Bantu: Doe)  
 
 
Listen, hear  tīng    听  X648   ß  N. S-G  of הטה  HeeDTaH, listening,
     literally bending an ear or inclining to hear  -- see NET
      G.C.: itey,  listen (Chumash/Hokan of Calif.;  achtloss, heedless

Live  on   chi  持 X78  חי  K[H]ahY , to live  -- see HYGIENE
           G.C.: Old Indic ayu means alive. Quechua chay is a living person. Choy in a    Turkish dialect means 'wild.' 
 
Locale: village, farm, place of business, manor  zhuang  ()  X862
          M132 S-F S-G      שכון  SHiKOON, dwelling  -- see SCENE
 
Look at, watch    guan 觀(观) X223 <  עין  GHaYeN 'to direct one's attention to'
        --  see AIM and 'Guard' above
 
Make, create   1 zou 做 X883 ß עשה  GHaSaH, to make, produce, do 2. zao  造    X810  יצור YiTSOOR, to fashion [an end-Resh/R is always dropped]  
          -- see STYLE and Do above.
            G.C. Hacer is to make in Spanish.
 
Mama       mu  母 X466; ma  媽 (妈) X433 , ß אם  EM, mother, while  nai means     breasts, milk,  suckling and grandmother X471  <  S-N -- see MAMA
             G.C.: Bantu mamas include: mau (Pongoro) and umai (Bungu),
Mayan mamas include me' (Tzotzil).  Nasal-vowel 'mother' words are an
acknowledged human universal.
 
Man, male    nan 男X471 S-N אמן OaMahN, craftsman – see MAN
 
Material (non-spiritual), dust, dirt   chen  塵 (尘) X73 S-N חמר  K[H]eyMeR,
         material, clay.  See MAROON.
 
Me (1st per. Pron.) in dial. I, We, My or Our is  an  俺 X6.  Me in Cantonese is ngo   我, in  Korean na, and in Basque ni.    אני  ANeeY, me;  אנו  ANOO is we.
         -- see ME

Middle, in the…, or halfway, partners and mix   ban  半 X18  בין  BeYN, between,       among, interpolate  -- see Center above, and see BONE
 
Miracle, supernatural, mythic   shen 神 X583  ß S-F  נס Nai$, sign,
          wondrous event,  … miracle (Numbers 26:10).   -- see SIGN
 
Mist – see Fog
 
Mistreat , loss, disadvantage  yuan  冤 X 794; also  nao X473 = disturb   ß נוי ע   
          [E]eNOOY, affliction. עני  [A]hNeeY, poor, lowly. ענה  [A]NaH, to afflict
           --  see 'ANNOY'   see Oppress below
         G.C.: Hawaiian inea means hardship and suffering
 
Morphine, a bitter alkaloid  mă חY  X434 ; a foreign borrowing, but important
           because the R of moRphine and  מר MahR, bitter has been replaced by
           ă   [MARINE]
 
Moth  zhừ    X859   ß    עש  [A]hS, moth.  Job 4:19
 
Mother -- see Mama above
 
Motion, movement  yun  運 (运) X802  נוע NOO[A], motion, movement  -- see 'MOTION' See Move below.
 
Mound,  dun 墩 X149 (60)  נד  NaiD, mound   see Raised land below
          -- see DUNE
          GC : The ANDES mountains derive from Quechua Indian andi (high crest)
 
Mountain  shᾱn   山  X570 , mountain ß   S-F   נס  Nai$, ensign, banner standard held aloft, as the נס  Nai$ on a hill of Isaiah 30:17.  Mountains are often sacred places of pilgrimage.  G.C.:  Korean mountain is 산 san    see SIGN
      
Move, shift    nuo 挪 X485   נע , נוע   N[A] or NOO[A], move  --  see Genesis 4:12       NOD or  HAUNT  G.C.: Spanish andar is to move or go.
                                      Indo-European roots: neu (to nod). meue (to push away).
 
Mouth of river     pu  浦 X513   פה    PeH, mouth  -- see OPEN and Nose below
          G.C.: Ip is a Korean mouth; Paa  is an Eskimo: Inupiak doorway

Mud, mire 1.  ni 泥X476 (later, cement); also  yuan  淵 (渊) X794, abyss,
           deep pool     ß   יון   YaVaiN, mud, mire  -- see FENWAY
          GC: Spanish fango is mud. Swamp is beung in Thai. The WN in    Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada), means swamp in Cree (Native American)
 
           2. mud, shoreline silt  tan 灘(滩)  X628  S-D  אדמה ADaMaH
           G.C.:  dam (earth for the Kiowa Indians), din (ground in Thai), tanah     (ground in Malay), tian (field in Chinese) and timani (mainland in Eskimo).     Bahasa Malaysia tanah, like  אדמה ADaMaH, means both dirt and land.
 
 
Mulberry    ren 葚 X556    ß   S-N  מר  MahR, bitter  -- see MARINE  
           G.C. : Latin amarus (bitter), the M-R of Latin morus (mulberry) shifted to        M-L in the bitter-sweet MULBERRY

Name, surname   xing 姓 X721 S-N    שם   SHeM, name  -- ee ASHAMED
          and the  'reputation' entry below
          G.C.:  Bantu iziina, name  (Fipa, Hangaza and Lambya dialects)
Nail, to drive a nail, gore, staple and insect sting: ding 釘(钉)   X137
 ß  N  S-G S-D    עקץ[O]aQeTS is a sting, point, or prick – see STING
 
Narrow  zhăi narrow   窄 X818   צר TSahR,  narrow – see STRESS
 (End- ר Resh/R is always dropped in Chinese, for examples: zhu stop,  halt X859 
 <  עצר [A]TSahR, stop, restrain – see ARREST and Stop below;  
 zhu pig  X856  חזיר [K]HaZeeYR, pig – see HYOSCYAMINE and Pig below; 
 zhừ to store  X859 <   אצר  ATSoaR, to store  -- see STORE  and  Lay aside
 elow)

Neck   … originally yoke or collar, reverse to li(n)g 領(领) X410  neck-piece for          oxen to pull, a yoke  ß  עול  GHOAL, collar – see  below and 'Collar'
           G.C.: Kaulua is a yoke in Hawaiian. Kall is neck in Maya: Yukatan.
 
 
 
Neck-piece for oxen to pull, a yoke  yang  X750   1. ענק [A]NaQ, necklace
           2.  חנק [K]HeNeQ, to choke the neck    – see  NECK
          G.C: The Cantonese neck is gan  (reversed nasal-guttural).
 
Needle  zhen針X832   <  צן TSaiN is a barb, thorn, briar or biting snare;    צנה TSeeNaH
           is a fishing hook ;   צנין TSaNeeYN is a thorn or prick . צנורה   TSeeNOARaH
           is a hook or needle.  -- see TINE. Reverse צ-נ Tsadi-Noon, for the  
          נעצוץ   N'[A]TSOOTS, thornbush -- see 'NETTLE.'  
           G.C.: Dm, from Tsadi-Noon, is sharp and to pierce in Ancient Egyptian.
           German zinke is a spike or prong; the Italian tusk or fang is zanna.
 

New     xin/shin  新 X717    שונה  SHOANeH, changed, different…thus new
          -- see CHANGE  G.C.: Bantu: shannaino is new (Mwera1 dialect).
 

Nibble       ken   啃 X358   טחן    DTaK[H]aN , grind -- see CHIN
          and  Pulverize below.  C.G.: Sanskrit kan.d is to pound; kat.t.am is chin           (Dravidian:Ta.); -kukuna is to gnaw, grind (Bantu: Venda)
 
Nod head up and down    dian 點(点) X 129 ß  נדד   NaDaD, shake, rock, swing
          -- see NOD  
          G.C.:  (Dravidian: K.)  danun, to shake; tÈtEm, to shake (Proto-Bantu)

Noise , sound   xiang 響(响) X706 שאון  SHAoWN, noise, sound -- Isaiah 24:8
           -- see SOUND   G.C.: (Mayan: Jacaltec) lo'uson, music; (Dravidian: Pkt.)
          san.a, sound, (Dravidian: Si.) san-a, sound; Egyptian: Sma, make music,          smi, report, proclaim; (Bantu: Kalanga) suma, make noise
  
Nose  bi 鼻 X31  ß S-B  אף  AhPH, nose -- see OPEN and Mouth above
          G.C.: (Dravidian: Ta.) a vi, to gape, yawn; (Swahili) pua nose
          (Bantu: Bonde2)  n'pua, nose; Paa  is an Eskimo: Inupiak doorway

Not    mei  沒 X443, ( also: m'  ח'  X433, not have, be without, and X485,
           lacking, insufficient) ß  S-N אין AYiN, nothing, naught,  there is not, not
          -- see NO   G.C.:  (Mayan: Itza, Chol) ma'an, there isn't, none, nothing, no
(Mayan: Yucatecan) ma', not, no ; Old Irish ni, not. Polish NO is nie
 
 
Obstruct, block, place a barrier   zhang  障X824 M213, S-F, S-N   חסם    [K]Ha$ahM, to prevent, block, muzzle. See STEM
           G.C.meaning to close up: Irish dunta, Norwegian stengt and
           Swedish stanga.
 
 
Ocean    yang 洋 X 748,9; ying  瀛 X776   ים  YaM, ocean  (Gen. 1:10), AGaN,           AGaM (basin, lake)  cognates: Agean , Cantonese yam is to drink,
          --  see OCEAN
           G.C.: Amerind words include: Andean: goñ, water 
          Amahuaca: junú, liquid, and junúnha, sea, great river or lake
          Arawakan/Yaru: jiñaa water, river, rain .
          Equatorial/ Asheninca: kõ jiñaa water, river, rain
 
1) Officer      jiang (general feudal administrator) 將(将) X303  סגן  $'GahN or  $'JaN  -- see CHECKMATE.  
 
2)  Official   guan  官  X222  S-G  כהן  KoHaiN, chief – see KHAN
          G.C.:  (Dravidian: P.lex.)  kan.oi, a government agriculture official;
          Japanese Shogun, official.       
 
Offspring   zi   X870  sons and daughters   צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring
         – see EXIT   and Descendant above
          G.C.:  The Indo-European reconstructed root for 'son' is seue
           (to give birth).  Uzazi is birth in Swahili.
 
Olive  gan    X186  ענב  GHaNa(V), berry, grape  -- see OLIVE
 
Only   chi  啻 X81 , and ge X205 (individual)  S-G  ß אח   AhKH, but, only 
         -- see EACH  and EXCEPT above
         G.C.: (Mayan: Uspantec) ic'an, alone, and qe, only. (Dravidian: Sh.)  ekh,
         alone ; (Bantu: Chewa) yekha, he only

Open   1. pou  剖  X512 (cut open), 2.  u  浦  X513 (river mouth), 3.  pu 普X513    (open to all),  4. pu 曝 X514 (exposed)  <  1. פה PeH, mouth; פתה PaTaH, to         open  2. ß אף    AhPH, nose, nostril (the orifice) – see OPEN
           G.C.:  (Mayan: Ch'ol)  ch'ip' open slightly ; (Dravidian: Br.) ba, mouth,
            aperture ; (Egyptian) pgA, entrance, (of building, of horizon), mouth
            (of valley
 
Or (conj.).  and, as yet, but  er  而 X158  או    OW, or, if, but  -- see OR
           G.C.:   (Mayan: Huastec) wa ; reverse to reu for 'or' in Thai
 
 
Oppress, force   ken  X357  S-G   ענוי GHeNOOY, affliction; ענה  GHaNaH, to       afflict; GHaNa$, rape --  see 'ANNOY'  see Mistreat above
           G.C.:  Latin nocere, to annoy.  Proto Polynesian ingo, to abuse, persecute
Other  bi  X33, also in the opponent's score bi  比X32; bi   皕 X35  two        hundred; parting from another  biao 鑣 (镳) X41; sharing with another biao           俵X43; the             distinction of another bie  别 X43. This theme of two-ness is in                ב B' or Bet, letter and number two– see BOTH
            G.C.: Bi is two in Basque. In Japanese, there is byo (second)
            and bai (twice).
 
Outside: 1. pull out, extract  zhuo  X867 ß חוץ K[H]OOTS 2. outside land,         away           from one's place xiang  鄉 (乡)  X704  ß  N  חוץ         K[H]OOTS
          -- see EXIT  C.G: Chut is out in Cantonese; Japanese tsuiho, to exile
or turn out
 
Overflow   lan  濫(滥) X379   ß S-L  נהר   NaHaR, to flow --  see INERT
         G.C.:  longa, brook, stream (Bantu: Ntuzu) nahir, naihar, a canal, a stream
         (Dravidian: P.lex.)

Pain (medical, from disease)  guan 瘝 X224   ß of  נגע  NaG[A]h,  lague  ß         S-G   נכה NaKHaH and    נכא NaKAh are wounding words, the latter meaning
       'deeply stricken'   -- see NOXIOUS  and the Disease entry above
         G.C.:  yajin, ill (Mayan: Uspantec); kuna_ni,  gripping pain (Dravidian: B.);
         nqm, suffer, be afflicted (Egyptian); gi'no, plague of insects
         (Bantu: Sukuma)
 
Pair – see Two

Partial, favoring one side     pian  偏 X503 פנה  PaNaH, point, turn to.     Deuteronomy 31:20 'turn to' (to worship), Leviticus 26:9 'look with favor.' -      - see 'Point'
        C.G.: Peny is 'to bend' in Maidu Indian; Pina is 'he turned' in Syriac
 
Peace, tranquility    ning(宁)X482    נוח NOAK[H], quiet, rest      
       – see  NIGHT and HAUNT  G.C.:  Sleep in Saami (Lapp) is nohkkat

Pearl    pin 玭 X506,7    פנינה   PiNeeYNaH, pearl (Lamentations 4:7) 
        See PENETRATE  G.C.: A pearl in Samoan is penina. A pond is a bin or        bilabial-nasal container for fish, a pound for dogs, a banzai for miniature
        trees, etc.

People, a group of people, the folk  min  民   X456   המון   HaMOAN inI Samuel       14:16 is specifically 'the multitude' of people  [MANY]
 
Period of time – see Generation
 
Petty, unimportant, small  Chinese   xiăo 小 X709 ( pronounced 'seo' in 
      Mandarin, 'seow' in the less-clipped Cantonese)   צער TSa[A]hR  (small,
      unimportant)  It was not borrowed,  nor the word for number ZERO. [ZERO]
      G.C.:  Atom, the smrt particle, is zarre in Persian/Farsi. 
 
Pig  zhū   猪 X856 ß  [K]HaZeeYR, pig  -- see HYOSCYAMINE
    (for dropped end-Resh/R, see Narrow above)
G.C.: Estonian  piglet is kesik; Finnish pig is sikka; Malagassy (Madagascar) pig is kisoa; Malay: Tidore pig is sohof.
 
 
Pipe  guan 琯 X224   S-G  קנה QaNeH, stem, stalk, reed, shaft  -- see 'CAE'
       See Flute above, and Stem below
 
Pit, hole    kan   坎 X350  ß    נקיק  NiQeeYQ, cleft, crevice Jer. 13:4 
          – see CAVITY
 
Pleasant, sweet, agreeable  甘gān  X195 ß    ענג  GHoaNeG, pleasure
– see HONEY   G.C. :  German hoeing  (thus English) is honey.
Honey is hunaja  in Finnish.
 
 
 
Plant -- see Grow above, and Tree below
 
Point    bian 砭 X37. indicating position or direction, 2. side, edge, 3.  bian 鯿 X38 ointy-headed fish, 4. perform acupunture); also feng  峰 X176-178 wind           風 (风), summit 峰, point of knife 鋒. See Partial. פנה  PaNaH, point; פינה    PeeYNaH, corner -- see POINT, PINNACLE, PENGUIN, NIB ,                   WIND. C.G.: pna, turn upside down, turn against someone (Egyptian);
        anani, highest point, outmost (Bantu: Mpoto)
 
Pole – see Stem below
Portrait  -- see Resemble
 
Pour (liquid into cup)  zhēn    X833 <  ß  נזל  NoZeL, pour  -- see NOZZLE
 
Pour water on, or add water to  chōng X82  N  שקה  S(H)aQaH is to water or
      irrigate; שקע  SHaQ[A]h is to dip, be submerged or immersed in water
see Water below, and  ee SOAK.

Pulverize, grains or medicine    chong  舂 X82    טחן  DTaK[H]ahN  (grind) and          נגס NahGa$ (bite) are at GNAW 

Pure -- see Sacred below
 
Quick  1. su   X615  2. zhou 驟 (骤)  X854, rapid  ß     אוץOoWTS. Cantonese     sook (fast) ß ח-ץ Het-Tsadi is the sub-root of נחץ   Na[K]HahTS , to press    or urge and etc. – see Fast above ,see HASTE
 
Raised land (for sacrifices or planting) tan 壇 X629 נד  NaiD, mound, heap
       see Mound above  -- see DUNE

Raw    yuan 原  X797
 
Recognize    rèn   X555, to recognize, to know, to admit   נכר NaKeeR, to recognize
 
G.C. Mon-Khmer from FA: gənal/kənal ,  gơnăl/kơnăl   to recognize, know   (Bahnar [Golar]: Bahnaric Branch) M213;
ʔnhnal   recognize   (Tampuan [C]: Bahnaric Branch)
 
Repeat, or duplicate  chong   X83   שנה  SHeeNaH, repeat; root of (number) 
        two.    Repeat in Thai is sahm  ee Shift below  -- see CHANGE

Red   1. hong 红X249  2. tang  赯 X633 (mada-mada in Australian aborigine)  אדם     ADoaM, red -- see     DAWN

Regret, not satisfied      han  憾 X240 S-N ß נחם  Na[K]HaM, regret (Genesis           6:7) For han antonym of satisfaction  -- see 'REST'

Reputation, fame     sheng  聲(声) X586    שמע  SHeMaGH,  fame, reputation
       (see ANNOUNCE  above)     Shum = noise (Russian)
 
Reside, live, stay in a place  zhu 住 X858  ß  שב   SHai(V)  Genesis 13:6
       see Sit below
 
Resemble, portrait (likeness) xiang  像 X707  The S-M family of similitude
        includes סמל $eMeL, image ;     תמונה(S)iMOONaH picture, and   שם SHeM,
        a name (image of essence) – see SIMULATION [George Chen]
 
Respect, esteem, to revere   feng  奉 X178 ß N.  S-G  S-B      כבוד KaBHOAD,         respect, honor, verb too.  – see HEFT

Rest, sleeping soundly, contentment    han  酣 X237  ß  נוח   Noa[K]H (rest)  Na[K]HaT (rest, repose – Isaiah 30:15) --  see han antonym at 'regret'
 
River    han 漢 (汉) X 239,  chuan  川 X89  H-N is dominant root of river names,
         נחל   Na[K]HaL, stream; נהר   NaHaR, river (end liquid drops)         see CATSKILL, INERT, 'RUN' Joint of rivers  rui 汭 X561  ß                  YI'OAR, river  -- see RIO GRANDE
 
Rivers' confluence rui 汭 X561  ß  יאור  YI'OAR, river 
           -- see 'RIO GRANDE
 
Rod     kan  桿 (杆) קנה  QaNeH , stalk, stem  -- see CANE

Room, hall     ting  廳(厅) X647 ß  חדר  K[H]aDaR, room  -- see HOARD
 
 
Sacred  (pure, bright, magnificent, sacred, moral)  sheng  聖 (圣) X587    N  S-F  S-G
        זך ZaKH   means pure and clear, as the consecrating oil of Exodus  27:20;
          זכה ZaKaH is innocent and pure.    Sacred is pure; see 'SACRED.'
           G.C.:  Malay suci  (pure) and Thai   ศักดิ์สิทธิ์   sạkdi̒s̄ithhi̒   (pure); Indo-European 'root'
            of sacred is sac.  

Say  see 'DISCUSS' above 
Scatter       san  散 X566  ß   ניסה   Nai$, to flee  -- see NOSTALGIA
 
Season of year or time of day (hot or cold period)  tian  X642 S-N
           תם TahM, completed, ended period. -- see TIME
            G.C.:  Tuma is a period of time in Bambara (Hamitic). Tihng is a stop or
           pause in Cantonese.  
 
Sect or Class   men  們(们) X446  מיו  MeeYN, kind, species
       -- see MINISTER and MINUS

See, look   a) shi 視(视) X595 , b) zhŭ X858 to gaze steadily, look from afar  ß חזה      [K]HaZaH,  to look at. See Stare below– see GAZE and SEE
           G.C.:   The Indians of NW Washington State have a term sey-a (to see).
            To see is seh(en) in German


  
 
Seize,  take hold of  1.  zhuā  X860   2. take by force  zhan 佔 (占) X819 N.
          ß  אחז  A[K]HaZ, to seize, grasp  -- see HAS

Self, oneself     zi  自 X871,2   אתו Oa(S)OA, itself     see SUICIDE
 
Senior, older   zun  尊 X879  ישן  YaSHaN, old – see 'SENIOR'
 
Shaft – see Stem below

Shield      gan  桿/干(杆) X193  מען  [Ma]GeN, a shield -- see JANUARY
          and  Defend  above
 
Shift      -- see Change above
 
Ship  --  see Boat above
 
Shoot, blossom, new plant growth  sǔn  hoots (bamboo, edible),
           and sūn fragrant grass both X619    ß  נצה NeeTSaH, blossom
 
Side by side   bing   (,) X46, also bian 邊 (边 )X38 border between      regions   בין BaYN  See Differentiate above
 
Sign, omen, portend zhao  招 X826  or a signifying gesture zhao X824  אות       OW(S),  sign, symbol (of covenant…).   -- see OATH
 
Sing   Chang  唱 X70  1. קינה QeeYNaH, loud dirge 2. קנה QaNaH hollow reed,         pipe (piping is singing or chanting)  -- see KEENING
 
Single, only    du  獨 (独) X143   אחד  E[K]HaD in Hebrew[K]HaD, one (Aramaic)     -  see EACH
 
Sink  chen  沈 (沉) X73  ß S-N   מוך  MOOKH, sink, go lower  -- see MEEK
 
Sit   1. zuo  X881  2. zuo X881, seat   S-F  שבSHai(V), sit  see Reside above
 
Sleep    sleepy, drowsy:  meng X448   ; dream:   meng 夢 (梦) X 449; 
       Mn X452,  sleep  ß   נום   NOOM, slumber, drowse  -- see NUMB
       G.C.:  Japanese nemui means sleepy; nemuru is sleep. Reverse to mania
       (inactive, sleepy) in Hawaiian. Also reversing   נום  NOOM is umagn, sleep,
       in Mapuche (isolate of Chile)   
 
Small – see Petty above
 
Smile  shen  X582   M132 S-N   שמח SaMayah[K]H is a joyful satisfaction
          G.C.: Indo-European 'root' is smei (to laugh, smile).
           Nepali muskaan = smile
 
Smoke   mάi X 436   S-N    ענן   [A]NahN, cloud. Genesis 4:19.  – see YEN
       G.C.:  Japanese Kumo (cloud) and French nuage (cloud) reverse the ע-ן  
Ayin-Noon KH-N (M) or GN) with the guttural ע Ayin/GN. The soft,    vowelized   ע Ayin/[A] may be behind NUANCE (from a cloud word).
 
 
Snake – see Eel above
 
Spear, short javelin   chάn X p.65  חנית  K[H]aNeeYT, spear of I Samuel 18:11
        G.C.: Latin contus and Sanskrit kuntas mean spear [Benjamin Davies]
 
Snore    han  鼾 X 237  ß  נחר   Na[K]HOAR , snore, snort  -- see SNORKEL

Some, any     shen   詵 X583   שום  SHOOM, some, any --  see SOME 

Sons (formerly daughters too)    zi 子 X869, 870  צאצא  TSETSAh, offspring – see     SON
 
Sound, noise   xiang  響 (响)  X705   שמע SHeMGHah, report, repute, what is heard -- see SOUND

Source of a river, fountainhead      yuan  源 X 797     עין[A]YiN or GHaYin, water      source  -- see  ORIGIN
 
Speech, word  yan  言 X742  ß ניב   NeeY(V) – see PHONETICS
      and 'DISCUSS' above
 
Spread out, open up, unfold  zhan  展 X819  צמח   TSeMa[K]H, sprout out, spring    up, grow like plants  -- see SUMAC   See Grow above

Stain, to make dirty  zhan  黵 X819  שמץ   SHeMeTS, a stain, smudge   -- see   SMUT
 
Stalk – see Stem below
 
Staple together  --  see Nail above.
 
Stare  zhu   X858   ß חזה  [K]HaZaH,  to look at. See See above – see GAZE
 
State, country  guo 國 (国) X 232  Gimel-Vav-Yod,  גוי  GOAY, nation (Genesis          15:14) 
 
Steamed   zhēng  蒸  X835   ß   ענן   GHaNahN, cloud  -- see FOG.
           G.C:  The Farsi/Persian 'fog,'  meh,  reverses S-N  ענן GHaNaN, cloud.  A cloud in Indonesian is awan (either an extended  [A](V), obscuring cloud or another  ענן [A]NaN, cloud as visible evaporation.
 
Stem  gan 竿 X194 pole, staff and main stalk of a bamboo, gan  稈 (秆) X195           stalk of a plant and shaft of an arm or barrel of a rifle, gan X197 trunk, the   main part, shank , geng  X207 stalk, stem    קנה QaNeH, stem, stalk, reed,
          shaft  -- see CANE
          G.C.: Greek kanna (reed, cane);  Kano in Hawaiian is a large, hard stem or a     tool handle
 
Sting, insect bite --  see Nail above.
 
 
Stir     tsuk  搐 X88 (chu as jerk, twitch, spasm)  S-F   זע TSOO[A], shake     -- see
           SEISMIC
 
Strike , afflict     jian  殲(歼) X297 annihilate, mace, wipe out 戬 X300, sword 劍      X303,  arrow, weapon 箭 304,  ß  נגע    NaG[A]h or NaJah, strike,  נגף             NaGaF or NaJaF   -- see NICK  
 
 
Store, hoard, hide  tún X659    טמן  DTaMahN, to hide. Conceal, TM root of 'treasure'   מטמון  MaDTMOAN . See also  Lay aside, store
 
Storage place     zang  藏 X809 (storing place) ßגנז  GaNaZ, to store,   גניזה            GiNeeYZaH,  king's treasury (Esther  3:9).  -- see JANUARY 
 
Strong   zhuang   壯 (壮)  X863  M213 N.   חזק  [K]HaZahQ, strong.  Exodus 19:19
 -- see HAS
 
Style    zhuan  篆 X862, a particular manner of calligraphy  זן  ZahN, a particular      sort or kind. II Chronicles 16:14

Sum   1. zong     X873, to sum up  2. zong  總 (縂 ,总)  X874, to put together,        sum up M132 S-F  S-G  S-N   סכום (Aramaic)  $'KOOM, amount, from  סך           $ahKH, , thought to be from a Syriac word indicating the end, as in the end          figure of a calculation.  This would make zong a N., S-F  S-G.
 
Suck,  see 'Draw In' above
 
Sun    ri 日 X556   Ra the Egyprian sun god and ultimately   ß אור OWR, light 
          The Finnish sun is aurinko.   -- see AURA
 
Sundry, miscellaneous   za  雜(杂) X 805    איזה AYZeH, any, some.
           – see THAT and This below

Sunrise  chen    X73 S-N  חמה  K[H]aMaH, sun  -- see CALM               
G.C.:  Latin cauma  is the heat of the sun; Qin, is the Maya sun; gunes is the Turkish sun.
 
 
Surface    Piἀn片  X503,  a flat, thin piece, used for the surface of water or larger
           stretches of things (crops) – a פנה  PaNeH,(singular) face or panel.
           See PANE   G.C.:  Finnish 'surface' is pinta. In Thai, a แผ่น p̄hæ̀n is
            a sheet, a plate, a formal appearance.    
 
 
Sweat, to moisten with sweat… or tears  zhan   沾(霑) X818  N.  זעה Zay[A]H,          sweat   -- See 'SEA'
Sweet     tian  甜 X 643 ß S-N   מתק  MaToaQ, sweet  -- see MUSK
           See 'pleasant, sweet' above

Sword    jian   劍(剑,劒) X301    חנית K[H]aNeeYT,  lance or dagger
          – see CENTER
 
Tall -- see High
 
Tender     rou,  柔 X 558  tender;  rong  young, fine,  רך  RuKH, soft,   tender (used    to describe young children)    --  see WEAK 
 
Test -- see Try
 
Therefore, hence    yuán 爰 X 795  יען Y'[A]hN,  because (Genesis 22:16)

This  ci 此X95, zi 兹 X869, 870, also shi  是 X596   זה   ZeH, ZoaTH.  See THAT

 
Time   shi 時 (时) X 590,4,  Cantonese sih gaan 時間 (间)  
        (time, season) and falling accent shi  世X593,4 (age, era) 
         1. שעה    SHa'GHaH,      hour, time,   era  X 590, time,  season;  
         2.  ß  עת   [A]i(S), time, era 
                   -- see  Season above   and  ETERNAL and SUN
                   G.C.: Japanese itsu, time; Polish czas, time, term; Samoan tau, season.
                    -- See Generation   
 
Tinder-wood, later a matchstick for fire   chái   柴  ß   S-F עץ [A]iTS, wooden
        stick (perhaps influenced by   ß   אש  AiSH, fire) – see STICK
        G.C.: The Arabic stick is asa. Cantonese (Hong Kong) reverses the           Edenic vowel-fricative to sūe (tree). 
             
 
Tired     pi  疲 X501 and bei  憊(惫) X27  S-B   ßעיף  [A]YePH, tired  –Genesis           25:29.  Dakota (Amer. Indian)  ayuba (weary, sleepy).  Weak or faint in   Japanese is           yowai  弱い  -- see IOWA

To (preposition)  dui  對 (对) X148  S-D עד  [A]hD, to, until --  see AT

Together,  same , unified tong  同(仝)  X649, 651(98)  ß N.  S-G  S-D    יחד     YaKHahD,  together, in unison, united [JUSTAPOSE] , see 'identify' and         'unite'
 
Top (first, north) 'north'is shuờfēngX609; it also can be broken down to a 'top' pointer, as shuờ X609 means the 'first' (top), and feng means 'wind' X176, and 'wind' means direction – see פ-נP-N pointers  at POINT.   צוף   TSOOF means on top, as in north and top as first, like 'top of the morning' – see TOP.
 
Touch, offend ying  攖 (撄)   X773 נגע  NaG[A]h, to touch, strike; נגיעה  NiGeeY[A]H, touch, contact.   See NICK
 
Tree    1. zhu X854 tree trunk, plant stem, zhū 855 plant name, trunk of tree, stem of plant, X856 evergreen tree, wood stake, zhú  X856 plant name (herb, flower), bamboo, zhừ X859 ramie plant for cloth   2. shu 樹(树) X 604, bamboo weapon 
       殳 X 600  3. zhu  X857 lean on a stick   ß  S-F  עץ   [A]iTS, tree, wood.
         G.C.:  Cantonese sūe (tree).  Hindi शाखा śākhā (wood) reflects how most
         languages that reverse Ayin-Tsadi favor the guttural Ayin.    -- see STICK
 
True       zhen  真 X 830    ß   S-F, S-N  אמת  EMe(S), true 
          -- see 'Etymology,'  See Truly          below and Honest above

Truly      duan  端 X 145, also dan X112   ß   אמת EMeT, true -- see above;
              duan    also means Proper,  דין   DeeYN, law   -- see DEAN  
 
Try, test, examine  shen  審(审) X584  to bring to trial,  examine, investigate   ß                S-F נסה  Nah$ayH,  to prove, test --  I Kings 10:1  [SIGN]
 
Turn    fan  翻 X 163,4   S-B  פנה   PaNaH, to turn to -- see FAN

Twin      shuang 雙 (双) X 607  S-F, S-N תאום  (S)'OWM, twin.  See   TEAM

Twine – see Wind below
 
Two (twosome, pair, couple, couplet, divided into two)    dui 對(对)  X148 דו    DOO           (Aramaic) two  -- see DUO

Upright    kan, kang  伉 X349  כנה   KaiN, upright. See CANE
 
Unicorn    lin  麟 (麐) X407 S-L S-N       ראם  R'AiM  (Numbers 23:22; later         translators want this to mean a horned animal that still exists)   – see  RAM

Urn    1. beng  甏 X31  2. weng  瓮 X680   see other vessels from Pey-Noon (panzi    is a dish,  Pen  盆 X497 is a bain, pot or PAN) פנום PiNeeYM, within (also    see pearl)  -- see PENETRATE.
 
Vapor – see Fog
 
Vibrate (in the wind) zhan 颭 (飐) X819  זע Z[A]h, tremble, shake, agitate
          – see SHAKE

Walking stick     qiong  筇 X 540   קנה  QaNeH, reed, stem; כנה KaiN, upright    post.  See  CANE

Warm (by fire),  1. hong 烘 X249   2. chong  沖(冲) X82 to pour boiling water חם            K[H]ahM,   heat -- see CALM
          G.C.: Basque okin  =  bake; Maidu (Calif. Indian) hom = to boil
 
Wave  làng   X379 – see GALE
 
Water  shuĭ    X608  שקה  SHaQaH,   , to water  --   see Pour Water above,
           and  see SOAK
           G.C. in Amerind: chiikaato drink (Arikara); ish-ko to drink (Choctaw);
           chace, wet    (Maya: Kuche)
;
 
Water source, fountainhead   yuan 源 X796 ; also yuan X795  עין  means original     [A]YiN,  water source, spring . – see ORIGIN
 
Way, fashion, pattern   fang 方 X167  אפן  OaPHeN,  way, style, manner –
          Prov.25:11

We, my, our      (pro.)  an  俺 X 6   ß אנו  ANOO, we or 3rd person plural suffix.     NOO  --  see ME

Weak     ruo  弱 X563   רך  RahKH, weak, tender -- see WEAK 
 
Weapons, arms zhang 仗 X823   זין ZaYiN, weapons, armaments  (not in the    Hebrew Bible, but in Aramaic-Syriac. Related to the dagger-like letter          Zayin.)
 
Weigh  cheng (稱)称 X75 N. שקל SHaQeL, to weigh – see SCALE

What?  ma  嗎 X432 מה  MaH, what?    -- see MANNA
 
White, undyed      su 素 X 616 S-F  זח Za[K]H, pure, clear, bright ;    צחור
          TSa[K]HoaR, white (Judges 5:10).  See 'HOARY'
          G.C.:   Zac = white in Maya. 
 
Win, triumph   sheng  勝 (胜) X 587  S-F, S-G M213    נצח NeTSaKH,  win;
          G.C. of winning:  thang          – Viet.; usinde –Swahili; nike –Greek
 
Wind or twine around, as with a turban  chan  X66  צנף  TSaNahF, to wind
       or wrap around, as with a turban [George Shen]   See 'Stephane'
 
Wing, side, aspect; border  xiang  廂 (厢)  X703,4  ß  N. קצה QaTSaH    (extremity, border).  – See COAST
 
Wine, ferment    yun  醖(酝)  X802 יין   YaYiN, wine  – see VINE
 
Wolf    lang 狼 X380  ß N, drop end-Bhet כלב   KeLe(V), canine  -- see LOBO
           G.C.: Samoanallqu; Quechua: dog allqu
 
 
Woody stem, branch, twig   zhi  枝 X840  ß  עץ  [A]yTS, wood, tree  --
          see UNDERSTAND

Woods , forest    lin 林 X 407, Canton. lum  林  אילן     EeYLaN, shade tree 
           - see ELM  G.C.: male, mil.ai, forest (Dravidian:Tu., Ta.)
 
Wool or felt, thick cloth made from fur  zhan 氈 (毡,氊) X819  צמר  S-N  TSeMeR,    wool  -- see SUMAC

Word, character for recording speech    zi 字 X873 ß S-F אות    OaS(S), letter;
          -- see OATH.  G.C.:  Japanese aizu         (sign).
 
Yes   shi 
 
Young plant or animal.  See Infant above.    'Young,' … inexperienced, delicate    nen 嫩 X476 <  נין  NeeYN, grandson,         descendent -- see 'NINO
 
AFTERWORD:  It is still not known if Chinese single-syllable roots (with a single graphic) can combine as do Edenic sub-roots.  If Chinese has dropped root consonants before its writing system developed, Edenicists must limit links to only the longer, similar words in more conservative, rural Asian languages like Mon-Khmer.  Below is an example of George Shen attempting to compare single-syllable sub-roots of Chinese and Edenic:
 
Edenic  גדול GaDOAL (large) may also be divided into  ub-roots 1. Ga and 2. DoaL.
The first syllable, Ga, may echo jừ 巨 X338  meaning huge. The Cantonese is pronounced Gui.
 The Chinese word for big is  da 大 X 106. The Shanghai dialect pronounces this as Doe, much like the second syllable of GaDoa(L).
So, 巨大 together would emphasize largeness: גדול GaDOAL. (An end-liquid would not be pronounced.)
D + G is combined in dàgē  X106, eldest sibling,  a reversed GaD(oaL), the biggest child = the oldest.  
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

The latest  E-Word Digital Dict. (1350 pgs of data in 2014) http://youtu.be/ZR0ftoBFdCA; The Origin of Speeches( Edenics theory) :http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rr0uXlX3bDQ
Previous musical slideshow: German-from-Edenic. 1000 + links to the Semitic Proto-Earth language.: http://youtu.be/IphieVppWjA   2nd ed. of THE ORIGIN OF SPEECHES  lightcatcherbooks   amazon.com   Archived posts; isaacmozeson@blogspot.co.il. Edenics searches, web games, short posts from Twitter:: http://www.edenics.net/  Following isaac mozeson on Facebook presents an interactive forum.
Edenics DVDs. Edenic (Biblical Hebrew) as the original, pre-Babel human language program, see our many resources at http://www.edenics.org/ incl. videos in English, Spn., Fr. or Ger. youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=glWG3coAtEg
 



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