Origin of English word COLOPHON

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The word COLOPHON is addressed in the entry: CULMINATE

English Word


Edenic Word


Hebrew Word







[GL → KL]


wave, a prominent man-made heap


TO CULMINATE (reach a highest point) is thought to come from a fabricated Indo-European “root” kel (to be prominent; hill).

An equivalent term is Edenic גל GahL (wave; a prominent man-made "heap" - as seen in Genesis31:46). Related Hebrew terms include עלה    GHaLaH (to go up; to succeed) and הר    HahR (hill, mountain) — (while softer than G, H is also a guttural that shifts to a K or hard C).


The official cognates of CULMINATE are COLONEL, COLONNADE, COLOPHON, COLUMN, EXCEL, HILL and HOLM. (EX)CEL is better matched with GHaLaH (to succeed), while HILL is merely an L → R change away from HahR (hill).

CLIM(B) might have made an EXCELLENT cognate for CULMINATE, but CLIMB is linked to a related Gimel-Lamed/ GL term seen at CONGLOMERATE.

To head for the hills,(HaRaY ARaRaT (the mountains of Ararat - Genesis8:4) are the first subject of Biblical OROLOGY (the study of mountains). Oros is mountain in Greek. The common H → G change in Slavic allows the Russian mountain to be gora. Closest to the Hebrew is the Czech mountain -hora.

The double L in HILL or HILLOCK may derive from the variant HeReR (mountain). Latin collis (hill) likewise doubles the liquid (L/R) at the end.

Whether or not the Harz Mountains of Germany relate to HahR, the Galilee (hilly region of northern Israel) surely derives from  GahL (mound, wave). The GALE (origin unknown), GALEON, GALLEY, and GULL may all be riding the same wave.

A CAIR(N) (Celtic; heap of stones as a monument) is identical to YiGaR in Genesis31:41 (Chaldean).

See OROLOGY.For the opposite of a HILL, see HOLLOW.

A sudden blast of wind or a pale of laughter is a GALE. There is no Indo-European “root: for GALE, the oldest source for a GALE of wind is Norwegian gul.  On a graph it is easier to see sudden spikes as a wave or  גל GahL.

Bible Verses

Genesis 31:46 ויאמר יעקב לאחיו לקטו אבנים ויקחו אבנים ויעשׂו־גל ויאכלו שׁם על־הגל׃

“And Jacob said unto his brethren: 'Gather stones'; and they took stones, and made a heap. And they did eat there by the heap.”



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