Origin of English word GYMNASIUM

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The word GYMNASIUM is addressed in the entry: NEXT

English Word


Edenic Word


Hebrew Word







[ NGD → NXT]


before, in front of


The Indo-European “root” of NEXT is the improbable nehw-iz (near). The Old English root of NEAR is neah, without an R.

  נגד   NeGeD is translated "before" in Joshua5:13 and as "in front of" in Exodus19:2.  Note the dental shift from Dalet/ D to T. NEXT can also mean "just before" (in space, in time, or in rank).the alleged Indo-European “root” is hehwiz (near).

The 2-letter Hebrew root  נג   N-G is akin to NIGH and the first element of NEIBHBOR. This Noon-Gimel subroot appears in words like   נגע NaG[A]h (to approach, touch, reach – Jeremiah 4:10) . There is also the Biblical  נכח NayKHaK[H] (in front of, over against – Exodus 14:2) and  נכח   NoaKHa[K]H, defined by the Ben-Yehudah dictionary as “opposite; parallel.”


NEAR and NIGH belong in the same NEIGHBORHOOD as NEXT. The  original guttural sound of the etymon is better preserved in the German nachst (next, next to, nearest). 

The opposite of NEXT TO or NEAR is seen in the translation of the same  NeGeD in Deuteronomy32:52 ("afar off"). The "opposition" sense of  NGD has encouraged some to see ANTI- in its counterpart  Ne(G)eD (against, opposed). The Indo-European “root” of ANTE- and ANTI- is ant (front, forehead), which shares effrontery with MeTSa[K]H ("forehead" - Jeremiah3:3 – see MARROW). Forehead in North Caucasian protoform is endu.  Near, close is jin in Chinese – what the Noon-Gimel subroot would have become.

NEGATIVE words, like NEGATE and RENEGADE, might be influenced by this  נגד   NeGeD of opposition (Kyle Aaron ).  Only a S-D apart.  Latin negare (to deny),  the Latin prefix neg (not) and earlier Italic stem *nek (not) do not dismiss נגד   NeGeD.

can also mean exposed (Judges 9:17), divulged (Joshua 2(:20), and open to the view of all (Numbers 25:4). These are a far better etymon for NAKED then offered by the skin-obsessed AHD. Their alleged cognates, GYMNASIUM from Greek and NUDE from Latin, are more easily seen by the NAKED eye as deriving from Edenic nasal-guttural-dental that from the Indo-European “root” nog w (naked) with unexpalined “suffixed forms.”

נגד   NeGeD has all the meaning, “in front of” yet “in opposition” to words like COUNTER, COUNTER-, COUNTENANCE and CONTRA-.  CONTRAST also has connotations of proximity yet opposition.  The “CON” looks like a prefix, but the etymology has to make sense.   Lazy lexicographers rely too heavily on such prefixes and suffixes.  And they will spell words according to these hunches. Latin contra (against) makes no sense from the given Indo-European “root” kom (near, with). The AHD adds cognates like COUNTRY and ENCOUNTER.

 In these CNT words, the Gimel.G  of  נגד   NeGeD has to shift gutturals to a hard C, the Dalet/D would have to shift dentals to T, and an M213 metathesis must be followed.

All the opposition might have influenced other words  with easier sound correspondence like the NEGATIVITY above..

Bible Verses

Joshua 5:13 ויהי בהיות יהושׁע ביריחו וישׂא עיניו וירא והנה־אישׁ עמד לנגדו וחרבו שׁלופה בידו וילך יהושׁע אליו ויאמר לו הלנו אתה אם־לצרינו׃

“And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’”



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